About Narnia

About Narnia

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Written by Dr Andrew Corbett, President of ICI Theological College Australia, and author of the popular commentary on the Book of Revelation- The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible

What did CS Lewis want his readers to know from NarniaCS Lewis’s Chronicles of Narnia are now acclaimed as the standard for what is considered ‘classic’ in Children’s fantasy literature. The seven book series, The Chronicles of Narnia were first published in the 1950s. CS Lewis wanted to write a ‘good’ story rather than a ‘Christian’ story. Yet the allegorical Christian message in the Chronicles of Narnia is hard to miss. In fact, to loosely quote from the Magician’s Nephew (Book 1 in the series), “Even though you know that the lion was singing, if you pretend really hard – you make yourself believe that it is just a lion roaring!” And in the same way, if you pretend really hard you could make yourself believe that CS Lewis was writing about something other than eternal truths…



The Chronicles of Narnia take vital elements of the Gospel and communicate them in fantastic (literally- “of fantasy”) images. The eternal truths of a Supreme Emperor, an incarnated Son of the Emperor, the problem of evil and sin as a universal condition of all people, the ultimate redeeming sacrifice of the Creator Himself, the empowering of all those who chose to follow the Creator, and the promise of a final solution to evil are key ingredients to the Narnia stories.

CS Lewis used the term ‘magic’ in a different way from the way it is generally used. By “magic” he meant something closer to science. To him, magic has an author, rules, an initiation, and practitioners. Magic is what he called the realm of knowledge beyond what science had unravelled. It was therefore, the science of the mysterious. Before the reader imagines that Lewis was restricting knowledge to rationalism it must be understood that to Lewis the unseen spiritual real was something that natural science had little or no way of classifying. To Lewis, this realm was probably more real than the “physical” realm in which we live. In the Magician’s Nephew he describes those first humans in Narnia as feeling like they had awoken from a long dream. This is an insight into how Lewis contrasted this physical real with the spiritual realm where we will spend eternity either with God or exiled from His presence depending on our response to his offer of forgiveness in this life.

What about all the withches, fauns, and mythical creatures?

The use of such mythical creatures as –

Centaurs (half man half animal) –
Minotaurs (half animal half man) –
Minoboars –
Fauns –
Evil creatures –
Witch –

-have prompted some concerned people to declare that these stories are of no use to Christians at all. Some parents have forbidden their children reading the Narnia Chronicles because it uses such mythical creatures as an integral component to the stories. But Christians need to consider several factors regarding this type of fantasy-

  • The Bible also contains references to witches, witchcraft, and sorcery. (eg. 1Sam. 28)

  • The world of Narnia is not our world. It is a make-believe world.

  • The Bible also describes fantastic creatures (eg. Ezek. 1-2; Book of Revelation) these include flying dragons, half scorpion-half humans, beasts with multiple faces including that of a man, seraphim, cherabim, and “beasts” that arise from the sea (Dan. 8; Rev. 13).

Perhaps this is to be distinguished from “bad” fantasy stories where evil creatures interact in our world and their evil actions are justified as reasonable. CS Lewis does not do this.

The Stone Table picture

The climax of The Lion, The Witch, and Wardrobe is the Stone Table scene. This is one of the most profound allegories of Calvary ever written. Many believers have testified how this Narnia scene has enhanced their appreciation of the Cross.


But one of the elders said to me, “Do not weep. Behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has prevailed to open the scroll and to loose its seven seals.”
Revelation 5:5

The parallels between Aslan and Christ are obvious: Son of the Emperor, Creator, Incarnate One, Redeeming Sacrifice, Empowering Lord. CS Lewis wrote to an 11 year girl, Hilla, answering her question about Alsan by asking her who it was who (i) arrived at the same time as Father Christmas, (ii) said He was the Son of the Great Emperor, (iii) gave Himself up for someone else’s fault to be jeered at and killed by wicked people, and (iv) came to life again. The obvious answer is Jesus Christ of Nazareth.

When you see the movie, enjoy the story, admire the film, wonder at the symbolism, and then read the books with your children!

Download a FREE Powerpoint presentation which outlines the story of the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe with explanatory notes.



The sole relative of CS Lewis is Douglas Gresham (his step-son). He was 8 when he first met his father-to-be. He was 18 when CS Lewis died. After he graduated from College and married he moved to Tasmania where he farmed and moonlighted as an announcer on 7BU. He moved to Ireland the mid 1980s where he still lives, but he is a regular visitor back to Australia. His memoirs of his relationship with Jack (CS) Lewis were published by Collins as The Lenten Lands.

Douglas Gresham as a 6 year old boy-
Douglas Gresham as a boy

Doug Gresham, aged 60 –
Douglas Gresham at the age of 60

It is Douglas Gresham who produced the Disney distributed film- The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe.

Andrew Corbett, December 2005

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Just War Theory

Just War Theory

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Is there such a thing as a “Just War”? Can military conflict be thought of as advancing the Cause of Christ? Should Christians serve in the Armed Forces?…

Richard ArmitageFormer Whitehouse Deputy Secretary of State (and Christian), Richard Armitage, has described the “Coalition of the Willing” (including the armed forces of the USA, UK, and Australia) as doing the “Lord’s work” in their military campaign in Iraq. But does God really sanction war? Is there really ever such a thing as a “Just War”?

I am presenting this as a Pacifist. I do not come from a military family. I do not agree with war. I have never seen “action”. I have never served in the military. But, I am an amateur war historian, and I have throughout my pastoral career pastored soldiers, airmen, and naval personnel. I have publicly and consistently denounced our invasion in Iraq even before the Americans proposed it. Therefore, I stand open to the accusation of bias when it comes to the issue of “Just War” – but it is a declared bias that the reader should factor into their own opinion about this vital topic.

There never was a good war, or a bad peace.
Benjamin Franklin

The cost of warTHE COST OF WAR

War always comes at a cost. Usually this cost is borne by those directly engaged in the struggle: military personnel. But this is no longer the case. The ratio of military personnel to civilians has been hurtling toward a much higher civilian casualty rate. This is evidenced by the statistics from WW1 through to the most recent Gulf War 2.

1915 -18
1939 – 45
1950 – 53
1966 -1974
2003 –
70% (?)

There is no such thing as an inevitable war. If war comes it will be from failure of human wisdom.
Andrew B. Law

Nations have recently been led to borrow billions for war; no nation has ever borrowed largely for education. Probably, no nation is rich enough to pay for both war and civilization. We must make our choice; we cannot have both.
Abraham Flexner



The modern cost of warOf course, casualties are not the only cost of a military conflict. Some of the costs of war, which are hard to put a number to, include: residual landmines (left “live” in the ground even after a war and still killing and maiming today), orphans of those killed in a conflict, congenital birth defects resulting from toxic chemicals used as weapons of clearing agents (for example “agent orange”), and the increasingly diagnosed Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, are all costs of war which don’t usually get reported in the most commonly cited statistics.



Lessons from military battlesThere many valuable life-lessons that can be learned and applied from military campaigns. In our DVD presentation, THE ANZAC SPIRIT, I show that the best of what it means to be Australian is graphically seen in the battles that Australians have been engaged in. There are of course negative examples that can be noted from military battles, such as excessive cruelty, torture, murder, betrayal, and sniping. But such positive qualities as courageous leadership, teamwork, self-sacrifice and bravery in the face of adversity are admirable traits that often shine in the dark tempest of military turmoil.



Purposes of military warfarePeople have their reasons for going to war. These reasons surely fall under the general headings of ‘power’ or ‘defence’. Under the general category of ‘power’ we might include (i) territorial conquest, (ii) revenge, or (iii) pride. But history reveals that war often serves a more mysterious purpose.



and to overthrow the throne of kingdoms. I am about to destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the nations, and overthrow the chariots and their riders. And the horses and their riders shall go down, every one by the sword of his brother.
Haggai 2:22

The LORD is a man of war; the LORD is His name.
Exodus 15:3Divine purposes for military warfare

Scripture seems to indicate that God used military battles to evict, judge, vindicate, rescue, humble, and teach. It was Thomas Aquinas who argued in the Middle Ages that if wars are to be fought they should only be fought if they meet three criteria that makes them “just”.

In order for a war to be just, three things are necessary. First, the authority of the Sovereign…. Secondly, a just cause…. Thirdly … a rightful intention.
Thomas Aquinas

This is the origin of the ‘just war’ theory. But what might surprise people is that whenever God instructed war in the Old Covenant, it was always restricted to either defence, or an offensive limited to a specific time and place for a stated purpose. That is, Israel was not free to make war whenever it chose. Added to this, God gave some very stringent rules for how military conflict was to be carried out.



Rules of warfare in the BibleDeuteronomy 20 contains rules of warfare that include the protection of non-combatants, women, children, animals and even fruit trees.

“When you draw near to a city to fight against it, offer terms of peace to it…but the women and the little ones, the livestock, and everything else in the city, all its spoil, you shall take as plunder for yourselves. And you shall enjoy the spoil of your enemies, which the LORD your God has given you…”
Deuteronomy 20:10, 14



It is a myth that God or the Bible ever authorised “Holy War”. The term no where appears in Scripture.

The Bible does not teach HOLY WAR

Some Muslims claim that the Bible is same as the Qur’an when it comes to sanctioning violence. One Australian Federal politician who used Parliamentary Privilege to air these claims even said that the Bible authorises the ripping open of pregnant women. This politician went on in her speech to cite a violent story from the Bible where this apparently occurred to support her case. The main problem was, however, in using this violent war-crime story to back-up her position (that the Bible was just as violent as the Qur’an) she actually drew on a story from the Qur’an! No where does the Bible endorse such war crimes – in fact, it condemns them as “evil”!

Thus says the LORD:
“For three transgressions of the Ammonites,
and for four, I will not revoke the punishment,
because they have ripped open pregnant women in Gilead,
that they might enlarge their border.

Amos 1:13

You are created to worshipDespite the DaVinci Code book and movie promoting the idea that the Church conducts strategic assassinations in order to silence its enemies and advance its cause as somehow endorsed by the Bible, this is wrong. It does not. Christians are not authorised by God or the Bible to carry out executions in the name of God or the Church.

Some appeal to Dietrich Bonhoeffer as an example of a Christian Pacifist who adapted to his circumstances and embraced a “Just War” mentality when it became obvious that Adolf Hitler could not be stopped. He became a co-conspirator in the attempted assassination of Adolf Hitler early in the tyrant’s career.



Christ never condemned anyone for their military service. And He had plenty of opportunity to if He wanted to make a point about the morality of military service.

Christ’s language about swords was generally metaphorical. “Do not think that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I have not come to bring peace, but a sword.” (Matt. 10:34) “Sword” in this reference speaks of pain caused by division, not a physical sword. The same idea is conveyed in Luke 2:35 where Mary the mother of Jesus is told that a ‘sword’ will pierce her heart.

Christ said His Kingdom was not of this world but if it was his followers would fight to defend it - John 18:36

Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword back into its place. For all who take the sword will perish by the sword.
Matthew 26:52

He said to them, “But now let the one who has a moneybag take it, and likewise a knapsack. And let the one who has no sword sell his cloak and buy one.” (Luke 22:36) This statement came from Christ during His Last Supper with His disciples. He was about to leave them. He had up until that point been their provider, their host, and their protector. His absence would highlight their lack of these things – hence His statement to them about needing other things to replace Him. This statement by Christ in Luke 22:36 is therefore metaphorical.



The New Testament teaches that the battles of the Old Testament were shadows or types of our real battles that we all face in obeying God.

Now these things took place as examples for us, that we might not desire evil as they did…Now these things happened to them as an example, but they were written down for our instruction, on whom the end of the ages has come.
First Corinthians 10:6-11

The New Testament teaches that we are to live out our commitment to Christ and His cause as if we are in a constant state of war.

Share in suffering as a good soldier of Christ Jesus.
No soldier gets entangled in civilian pursuits, since his aim is to please the one who enlisted him.

2Tim. 2:3-4

For though we walk in the flesh, we are not waging war according to the flesh. For the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh but have divine power to destroy strongholds.
2Cor. 10:3-4

for he is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer.
Romans 13:4

A distinction needs to be made between murder and killing on behalf of the State. Murder is the unlawful killing of another person. Death in military combat generally carries the authority of the State and is not as such categorised as murder.



The Medieval Crusades are often used against Christians to show that we have a shameful and violent past. They are cited as examples of the ugly side of Christianity and therefore such a blight upon Christianity that it has no moral right to criticise the violence of other religions.

But these “crusades” were contrary to the teaching of Christ and Scripture! The Crusaders had to violate Scripture to conduct their crusades. The argument that most wars in human history have been caused by religion is just not true. The twentieth century has been described as the bloodiest century ever. All the major atrocities of the twentieth century were carried out by atheists – Stalin, Hitler, Pol Pot, to name some of them.



The cause of Christ and His Church is not advanced militarily. Our greatest weapons are the Gospel, prayer, holy living, courageous leadership, faith, and argument. Not military warfare. In other words, Christianity is advanced by dual persuasion – (i) the persuasion that comes from the witness of a believer, and (ii) the persuasion that can (and must) only come from the Holy Spirit.

For those believers engaged in military forces, the Scriptures affirm the dignity of such a vocation and the acceptability of carrying out just war within the rules of engagement in the cause of the State.

And for those of us who long for world peace, the answer is rarely, if ever, war- but the kind of inner peace that only Christ can give to the world- one individual at a time.



watch this…./… printable version of this page

Andrew Corbett, October 10th 2006

Christianity’s Most Important Doctrines

Christianity’s Most Important Doctrines

Christianity's Most Important Doctrines


Some people are very passionate about their particular view of End Times (“Eschatology”) while on the other hand, some people are very indifferent about it. Some Evangelical Denominations have very narrow views about what constitutes acceptable views about Eschatology. In some of these denominations they actually make agreement with their End Times position an essential requirement for ordination. Many people find the topic so difficult that they’s rather not even attempt it. One prominent Seattle preacher recently said that discussing aspects of Eschatology was as important as discussing “wookies” (from the Star Wars movie series)! In one respect he is right, in that, there are several Biblical doctrines which are far more important than Eschatology. But…

It’s critical to know what the “most important” Christian doctrines are, before you can assert that or agree with the statement that Eschatology is not among the most important Christian Doctrines. Here are the top 4 most important-

  1. Theology Proper – The Person, identity, nature, attributes, prerogatives and acts of God.

  2. Christology – The Person, identity, attributes, incarnation, ministry, resurrection and glorification of Christ.

  3. Anthropology – Creation, fall, nature, affects of sin, and destiny of mankind.

  4. Soteriology – salvation of mankind from sin, redemption, adoption, reconciliation, regeneration, sanctification, resurrection, judgment, eternal destiny.

These are the most important doctrines of Christianity. They are also referred to as “Primary Doctrines.” This is why many believers do not consider eschatology to be a doctrine that Christians should divide over. Eschatology, they argue, is a doctrine of “Secondary Importance.” After all, speculating about what the Bible says regarding the future is just that: speculation. How then can anyone make a system of speculation the basis for Christian orthodoxy? There is however some hesitation for pressing this point too far. Let me explain why…



There are systems of Eschatology that actually impinge on the four Primary Doctrines. These Eschatological systems distort the identity and nature of God, diminish the glory of Christ and His finished work, and corrupt the Biblical teaching regarding man(kind) and his means of salvation. When an eschatological system does this, it is not only wrong, it is not only harmful, it can literally be deadly!

If you wanting to form your own view of Biblical teaching on “End Times” then your starting point should be Partial-Preterism.

If you do not have a system of eschatology, then I would recommend adopting a Partial Preterist Position for the following reasons-

  • This is by far the least speculative

  • It is the most demonstrably accurate

  • It is the most hermeneutically consistent

  • It is the most conservative Biblical position you can adopt. (And when it comes to eschatology we should not only be Biblically faithful, we should be conservative.)

This is because the more speculative we become with eschatology the greater the potential for damage to the Scriptures’ claim to be the inspired, inerrant Word of God in the minds of those who like ‘sheep without a shepherd’.

THE LEAST SPECULATIVE – (Partial) Preterism approaches all of Scripture in the same way, including eschatological passages. It does not assume that a Bible prophecy has not been fulfilled. Instead, it seeks to investigate from history whether it can be shown that a Bible prophecy has already been fulfilled. In fact, “Preterism” means examine the past. It does not endorse the concept of “Double” or “Dual” fulfilment of prophecies. Because it is grounded in historically verifiable data, it does not speculate about the future. Dispensational-Futurism (Pre-Millennialism) on the other hand as made and remade sildly speculative guesses as to how (already fulfilled) Bible prophecies will come to pass in our own day.

THE MOST DEMONSTRABLY ACCURATE – (Partial) Preterism links Bible prophecies with verifiable events from history. Where it cannot clearly do so, it does not speculate. In this way it can demonstrate that all of Revelation chapters 1 to 19 has been fulfilled (which coincides with all of Matthew 24).

THE MOST HERMENEUTICALLY CONSISTENT – Classical (Partial) Preterism approaches Bible Prophecies passages of Scripture in the same way as any other Scripture passage. This is different to other Eschatological systems which require their own “principles” or “laws” to make their system work.

THE MOST BIBLICALLY CONSERVATIVE – Classical Preterism does not try to force contemporary events into the contents of Bible Prophecy. This is one of the reasons why Historicism is not a conservative approach to Scripture because when it was developed during the period of the Reformation, it forced its contemporary events (the Reformation of the Church from the Papal abberations of Scripture and its abuses of power) into the text of Scripture as if these events were the intended fulfilment of these prophecies.



Dispensational Premillennialism may sound to many like a viable eschatological alternative that well and truly is similarly dismmissed as a doctrine of ‘Secondary’ importance. But there are two reasons why we should be a little less passive in considering this eschatological system. Firstly, it impinges into the doctrine of Christology by promoting the idea that Christ will return to earth, in particular Jerusalem, to re-establish the Throne of David from a rebuilt Temple. To arrive at this interpretation, this system demands that certain Bible prophecy fulfilments be overlooked, others have to be taken in an unintended wooden literal sense, and still others be granted a “second” fulfilment. But if Christ must reinstitute the Levitical Priesthood and re-establish the Temple in Jerusalem, apart from their being no justifiable Biblical grounds for this, the question has to be asked: Why would Christ need to re-establish animal sacrifices?

The passage most commonly mentioned in discussions of the difficulty presented by dispensational literalism is Ezekiel’s temple vision (Ezekiel 40-48). The dispensationalists are looking for a reinstitution of bloody animal sacrifices in a millennial temple built in accordance with the description found in this passage.9 Dispensationalists are careful to specify that these sacrifices are merely memorials of Christ’s death and will be the millennial equivalent of the Lord’s Supper. The problem with this is that Ezekiel’s vision refers to these sacrifices as literally making atonement (Ezekiel 45:15,17,20; Hebrew: kaphar, atone). Of course, a dispensationalist can go to the book of Hebrews to prove that animal sacrifices in the Old Testament never literally atoned for sin (Hebrews 10:4). When the Reformed theologian, however, goes to Hebrews to prove that animal sacrifices were done away forever by Christ’s once for all offering (Hebrews 10:10-18), then that is “theological interpretation” and “reading the New Testament back into the Old Testament,” two practices which dispensationalists routinely criticize.
Grover Gunn, citing- J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come, A Study in Biblical Eschatology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1958), page 519.

Secondly, this eschatological scheme has given rise to “Christian Zionism” which has unswervingly given unguarded support to the State of Israel. Even when the Israeli Government has violated United Nations sanctions, illegally invaded surrounding territories, illegitimately confiscated property, wrongly forced families off their land, and destroyed the homes of Palestinians and the Lebanese, these Christian Zionists have still given their complete endorsement. Here is an unwitting result of an eschatological system: innocent people have been needlessly killed as its collateral damage! Christian Zionists (Dispensational Futurists – Pre-Millennialists) regard the Bible as prophesying that Israel should be re-established as the world-power in these “last days”.

This is why we must be careful about dismissing Eschatological systems as being “inconsequential” or “as important as a discussion about Wookies.”

https://player.vimeo.com/video/8546487 Understand The Book of Revelation from Dr Andrew Corbett on Vimeo.

I have written an explanation of how Partial-Preterism leads to the best interpretation of Bible Prophecy in my eBook, The Most Embarrassing Book In The BIble, and in my paperback book- The Most Embarrassing Verse In The Bible.

– – –


 Dr. Andrew Corbett, Legana, Tasmania, Australia July 31st 2010

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When Terrorism Is Not Nice

When Terrorism Is Not Nice

When Terrorism Is Not Nice (France)


nice-france-truck-terrorism3The recent terror attack in France this month by a deranged delivery-truck driver is the seventh terrorist attack on French soil in the past 18 months. As we in Australia awoke to the devastating news of what had happened to our French cousins, there was community expressions and outpourings of sympathy for those affected by this evil.

Investigation_Police_in_France_are_now_treating_this_as_a_terrorAs the latest updates appeared on CNN in a shoe shop where I was buying Kim a pair of shoes, the female sales assistant said to me, “I don’t understand it. How could anyone do this to other people?” I replied that this indeed was not rational or logical, but rather spiritual. These terrorists generally claim quite openly that they acting on behalf of their religious ideas about God and His will. This kind of religious fundamentalism (where ‘fundamentalism’ is a commitment to a dogmatism is not open to open to challenges from rationality or reason) arises from a spiritual delusion. The apostle Paul referred to this kind spiritual manipulation of people as “bewitching” (Gal. 3:1) and ‘blindness’ (2Cor. 4:4). The solution to this can hardly be bullets or bombs! The solution can only be spiritual! Interestingly, the Prophets warned both Israel and other nations that forsaking or rejecting God and His Word would leave them vulnerable to “terrorism”.

nice-terrorist-attack-0007Jeremiah prophesies "terrorism"I understand that France, Belgium and other European countries affected by Islamic terrorism will feel the only way they can respond is by a physical show of force, but my prediction is that as long as they are spiritually weak and vulnerable they will ever be susceptible to this insidious evil perpetrated by spiritually deranged madmen who believe a lie.

One of the greatest spiritual weapons is truth. It is truth not faith which is antidote to doubt and unbelief. It is truth not force which is the antidote to delusion. The truth is that what motivates these Fundamentalist Terrorists are beliefs which are not true. As long as Western leaders deny this they are in affect perpetuating the spiritual cause of radicalisation. As long as non-Muslims remain ignorant about who the founder of Islam was and how he established this new religion, they remain susceptible to the false ideas promoted about it. The answer to this rapidly spreading terrorism is primarily spiritual not physical.

nice-france-terror-attack-2016One of our other greatest spiritual weapons, which is why Christianity has been able to peaceably gain a foothold in the most spiritually destitute places on earth is prayer. As the Apostle wrote to the Ephesians, “we do not wrestle against flesh and blood” those who are trying to combat terrorism think they are fighting against “flesh and blood” when in reality there are insidious spiritual forces of darkness at play. Thus, our response to this atrocious act of sin and cruelty tonight in our evening church service was to pray for France and the people of Nice in particular. Indeed, as Instagram was awash with the hashtag #prayforNice, we are.

A woman places a candle during a vigil to honor victims of the Bastille Day tragedy in Nice, France, in Sydney, Australia, Friday, July 15, 2016. World leaders are expressing dismay, sadness and solidarity with France over the attack carried out by a man who drove truck into crowds of people celebrating France's national day in Nice. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)

A woman places a candle during a vigil to honor victims of the Bastille Day tragedy in Nice, France, in Sydney, Australia, Friday, July 15, 2016. World leaders are expressing dismay, sadness and solidarity with France over the attack carried out by a man who drove truck into crowds of people celebrating France’s national day in Nice. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)

terror-attack-nice-france-isis-gains-west-does-nothing Vive-la-France 

The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible, eBook, by Dr. Andrew Corbett

The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible, eBook, by Dr. Andrew Corbett

Discover why thousands of pastors from around world have found the eBook, THE MOST EMBARRASSING BOOK IN THE BIBLE so helpful for them to understand what the Church’s role in this world should be amidst the shrill of so many Bible-Prophecy ministries which forecast doom and gloom. Check it out and you’ll see why. PREVIEW

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What The Bible Says About The Sabbath

What The Bible Says About The Sabbath

What The Bible Says About The Sabbath

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What The Bible Says About The Sabbath
God’s Word tells us that from the beginning He established a “week” and set aside one day out of this seven day cycle to be for rest and reflection – the Sabbath. On that day the people were to respect and honor God by resting from regular activity (such as work activities) and participating in public worship. This was done as a cultural observance up until the time of Moses when it then became part of the Mosaic Law, in particular, The Ten Commandments. Since The Ten Commandments are generally accepted as the sum(mary) of the Natural (Moral) Law, what relevance does one of the most important aspects of the Old Covenant have for us under the New Covenant? While the laws of Moses pertaining to sacrifices, ceremonies, civility, and diet have been abolished in the same way that shadows are abolished at high noon (Hebrews 10:1; Colossians 2:14, 16), does this apply to the Law of the Sabbath if it was given as a Moral Law not a Ceremonial Law? I will present a brief overview of the history and purpose of the Sabbath as revealed in Scripture, then challenge the idea that we should keep the Sabbath today. I hope to show why the “spirit of the Sabbath” gives life, but the letter of the law of the Sabbath brings death and condemnation. 

The Sabbath was also meant to be a public demonstration of Israel’s devotion to God that served as a vital witness of their trust in Yahweh. As such, many of the prophets saw Israel’s spiritual decline and diminished prosperity as directly relative to how they were honouring the Sabbath. For example, Ezekiel accused Israel of abusing the Sabbath by doing their own pleasures and thereby bringing a curse on themselves (Ezk. 20:12, 13, 16, 20, 24; 22:8, 26; 23:38). Knowing that the Sabbath was integrated into the Moral Laws of the Mosaic Covenant and just how seriously the prophets regarded it has led many New Covenant believers to wonder whether they should be similarly observing the Sabbath today. 

“Because they despised My judgments and did not walk in My statutes, but profaned My Sabbaths ; for their hearts went after their idols (vain pleasures).”
Ezekiel 20:16


The Sabbath was to be a special of rest for God’s people. It was a sign of the relationship between God and His people. Just as in any relationship there needs to be time set exclusively aside for the other person, so it is with God. The word “Sabbath” actually means: to cease from work. The Sabbath Law was something that God commanded His people to observe. This meant being prepared to make sacrifices in income. However, God promised to bless those who did honor the Sabbath with more than they would have if they didn’t observe the Sabbath. In Exodus 16:5, Israel was told to gather twice as much manna on the day before the Sabbath, so they could rest on the Sabbath from gathering food. Regardless of how much they gathered the day before, they would have exactly what they needed for the Sabbath day. But the people were very reluctant to love God in this way-

“On the seventh day some of the people went out to gather food, but they couldn’t find any. Then the LORD said to Moses, ‘How long will you people refuse to obey my commands and teachings? Look, the LORD has made the Sabbath a day of rest for you. So on the sixth day he will give you enough food for two days, but on the seventh day each of you must stay where you are. Do not go anywhere.’ So the people rested on the seventh day…”
Exodus 16:27-30 (New Century Version)

Therefore, God had the interests of His people in mind when establishing the Sabbath. It was to be a time of rest, for them, their families, their livestock, and their land. It seems that mankind is not created to work ceaselessly.



The Sabbath seems to have been established as a principle at Creation. Genesis 2:2-3 says-

“By the seventh day God finished the work he had been doing, so he rested from all his work. God blessed the seventh day and made it a holy day, because on that day he rested from all the work he had done in creating the world.”

The Sabbath was dedicated as a holy day for all people from the very beginning of time. By remembering the Sabbath, people would be acknowledging that everything exists because it was created. Thus, the Creator would be honored. This seems to be a major principle of the Sabbath: honor God as the Creator. This was later reinforced to Israel even after they had received the Ten Commandments-

The Israelites are to observe the Sabbath, celebrating it for the generations to come as a lasting covenant. It will be a sign between me and the Israelites forever, for in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day he abstained from work and rested.'”
Exodus 31:16, 17 (NIV)

The Sabbath was a time for corporate (community) worship. Today some might argue that you don’t have to go to church to worship God, but no Israelite could argue that way in the Old Testament. In fact, on the Sabbath, the daily offerings and sacrifices made were doubled, and penalties for breaking it were severe. In other words, the Sabbath was a special time for everybody to get together and worship God. Here is another principle of the Sabbath: come together and worship God.

¶“On the Sabbath day, two male lambs a year old without blemish, and two tenths of an ephah of fine flour for a grain offering, mixed with oil, and its drink offering: this is the burnt offering of every Sabbath, besides the regular burnt offering and its drink offering.
Numbers 28:9-10 

By corporately observing the Sabbath, the Israelites were declaring their trust in God for all surrounding nations, and peoples to witness. It became a sign between God and His people. It marked out God’s people as being distinct from others.

“I am the LORD your God. Live by my rules, obey my laws, and follow them. Keep my Sabbaths holy, and they will be a sign between me and you. Then you will know that I am the LORD you God.”
Ezekiel 20:19-20

The Sabbath therefore formed the principle of: a sign between God and His people. Interestingly, when Israel abandoned Sabbath observance it was a symptom of their heart corruption away from God. They were to be a witness to the nations of God and His love. Yet when they broke and abandoned the covenant they were exiled. They had failed to keep their God given commission to witness to the nations. When they were exiled (between 600-500 BC), there appears to have been a spiritual vacuum in the world. If the people God had trusted to bear His revelation had disappointed Him, there appears to have been no other people used to replace Israel at this point. So, during this period of history, five major religions commenced: Zoroasterianism, Buddhism, Jainism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Perhaps if Israel had kept its terms of the covenant, these religions may never had started (?). Israel’s decline away from the covenant was symptomatic of their treatment of the Sabbath.

It was given to Israel within the Ten Commandments as the Fourth Command. Even if God had not given any explanations of His commands (which doesn’t appear to be the way He operates), the simple fact that God commanded it is enough. In the same way perhaps as the sacramental Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil served as a test of obedience to Adam and Eve, the Sabbath at least serves as a test of obedience. There is a Sabbath principle of: God has commanded it as a part of the Old Covenant.



The Sabbath was a complete rest from work. The penalties for breaking the Sabbath were severe-

For six days, work is to be done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of rest, holy to the LORD. Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day must be put to death.
Exodus 31:15 (NIV)

This was no idle threat from our Lord. In Numbers 15:32 we read of a man who was found gathering sticks on the Sabbath to light a fire. The people were confused about what to do with him. After seeking the LORD they were told to stone him to death. It became clear that absolutely no work was to be done on the Sabbath. Readers of the Old Covenant soon realise that the Law demanded a lot of work. This included rigid priestly rituals and ceremonies, animal sacrifices, compulsory annual feasts, and respect for the Tabernacle (its materials and installation). The amount of works required under the Older Covenant has led some less skilled would-be Bible scholars to assume that it was the works themselves that wrought salvation for the devotee. The writer of the Book of Hebrews goes to great lengths to prove that it wasn’t the works that saved anyone under the Older Covenant. He describes them as mere shadows pointing to the real thing. Strangely within the Older Covenant the Sabbath stands as God’s command against any work being done. The Sabbath pictured salvation as rest from works (Heb. 4:1). Therefore the Sabbath was also a shadow (Col. 2:17) of the salvation to come in Jesus. It was: a shadow of the rest to come. It pointed to the time when God would make an end of the Older Covenant, which required obedience in works, where the works would be accomplished by One Man: Jesus. By His efforts, works and deeds, all those who put their faith and trust in Him receive rest for their souls (Matthew 11:28). Thus in Hebrews chapter four, the Sabbath was pictured as a shadow of the rest now realised in Jesus. Paul describes this salvation by saying-

“For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves, it is a gift of God, not of works lest anyone should boast
Ephesians 2:8-9

Under the Older Covenant Sabbath, anyone found breaking it, was actually therefore violating a “type” of the salvation that was to be revealed in Jesus. By working on the Sabbath they were in essence saying to God “Your salvation is not enough, I must add my works to it to make it sufficient”. In this light it becomes easier to see why God took such a dramatically stern attitude to those who broke the Sabbath.


1.  Honor God as the Creator.

2.  Come together and worship God.

3.  A sign between God and His people.

4.  God has commanded it as a part of the Old Covenant.

5.  It was a shadow of a rest to come.



Now that the Older Covenant has been done away with (Col. 2:14), does the Sabbath have any place today? Some might argue that the Law within the Older Covenant has also be abolished, and therefore the Sabbath is immediately done away with. Yet Jesus said that He came to uphold the Law and not do away with it-

“Don’t think that I have come to destroy the law of Moses or the teaching of the prophets. I have not come to destroy them but to bring about what they said. I tell you the truth, nothing will disappear from the law until heaven and earth are gone. Not even the smallest letter or the smallest part of a letter will be lost until everything has happened.”
Matthew 5:17-18 (NCV)

The Older Covenant and the Ten Commandments were not synonymous. The Ten Commandments were articulated at the forming of the Older Covenant, as the rules and terms of agreement between the covenant parties (God and Israel). Yet, along with these Moral Laws, other groups of Laws were included: Food Laws, Civil Laws, and Ceremonial Laws. We find the purpose of these Laws explained in the New Covenant.

The purpose of the Moral Law was to reveal sin as sin-

“What shall we say then? Is the law sin? Certainly not! On the contrary, I would not have known sin except through the law. For I would not have known covetousness unless the law had said, ‘You shall not covet.’ “
Romans 7:7 (NKJV)

Paul makes the case in the Book of Romans, that the Law served the purpose of revealing sin, not saving people from their sin. Of interest to this topic, is the fact that of all the Ten Commandments, nine are explicitly restated within the New Covenant. The only command of the Ten not prescribed for the New Covenant is the fourth- the observance of the Sabbath. The reason for has been discussed under the section a shadow of the rest to come. Therefore, the Moral Law does have a place within the New Covenant. It is a fallacy to ignore the Sabbath today on the assumption that it was only a part of the Mosaic Law (the Law given through Moses) which was done away with at the Cross.



The first Old Testament principle of the Sabbath discussed here is the principle of honouring God as Creator. The New Testament emphatically declares the exclusive creative activity of Yaweh. That is, God is the sole Creator-

“By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible”
Hebrews 11:3 (NKJV)

“For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him.
Colossians 1:16 (NKJV)

Would this principle of honoring God one day out of seven be relevant for today? Of worthy consideration at this point would be a casual appreciation of recent history. As evolution has gained more ground as the accepted theory of origins, so the regard for honoring God and respecting this Sabbath principle has declined proportionally. Just as God, the Creator of the universe, rested on the seventh day, God has established this principle for His creation: that they too rest on the Sabbath to remember Him as Creator.



God has designed a week for His people where they can set aside a day to come together and worship Him. This was the Old Testament principle. It was compulsory and part of the Law. Thus, Jesus was often recorded as being in the synagogue on the Sabbath. His is our ultimate example. The first church maintained the practise of coming together to worship God and appealing to Hebrew readers, their epistle endorses and reaffirms the principle of the regular weekly corporate worship time-

“And let us consider one another in order to stir up love and good works, not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together as is the manner of some, but exhorting one another, and so much the more as you see the Day approaching.”
Hebrews 10:24-25 (NKJV)

If we were looking for reasons to justify neglect of the Sabbath within the New Covenant, we fail at even this point. If anything, the New Covenant saints should delight themselves even more in seeking to worship freely on a day set aside exclusively for such. Under the Old Covenant it was compulsory and Law, but under the New it is an expression of worship to God and an opportunity to encourage other believers.



After the Old Covenant had legally come to an end, at the time of the exile into Babylon, the returning remnant of faithful Jews sought to make themselves distinct from the existing inhabitants of Jerusalem. Nehemiah chose the following Biblical method:

In those days I saw men in Judah treading winepresses on the Sabbath and bringing in grain and loading it on donkeys, together with wine, grapes, figs and all other kinds of loads. And they were bringing all this into Jerusalem on the Sabbath. Therefore I warned them against selling food on that day. Men from Tyre who lived in Jerusalem were bringing in fish and all kinds of merchandise and selling them in Jerusalem on the Sabbath to the people of Judah. I rebuked the nobles of Judah and said to them, “What is this wicked thing you are doing– desecrating the Sabbath day? Didn’t your forefathers do the same things, so that our God brought all this calamity upon us and upon this city? Now you are stirring up more wrath against Israel by desecrating the Sabbath.” When evening shadows fell on the gates of Jerusalem before the Sabbath, I ordered the doors to be shut and not opened until the Sabbath was over. I stationed some of my own men at the gates so that no load could be brought in on the Sabbath day. Once or twice the merchants and sellers of all kinds of goods spent the night outside Jerusalem. But I warned them and said, “Why do you spend the night by the wall? If you do this again, I will lay hands on you.” From that time on they no longer came on the Sabbath. Then I commanded the Levites to purify themselves and go and guard the gates in order to keep the Sabbath day holy. Remember me for this also, O my God, and show mercy to me according to your great love.
Nehemiah 13:15-22 (NIV)

He refused to have the people buy or sell on the Sabbath. As the worldly system tries to overthrow the Church of the Living and Risen Lord Jesus, it seeks to make the distinction between themselves and the pure people of God less and less. With regard to Sabbath, this worldly principle is ever so clear. The Bible student would do well to consider the principles of this form of attack when considering the “mark of the beast” (the worldly system) which will ultimately try to force saints into a situation where they have lost their distinctiveness and can not by or sell unless they dance to the world’s tune, so to speak.

For the Church today there is a desperate need for distinctiveness from the world and other religions. If every believer today was to take seriously this principle of the Sabbath, there would be dramatic impact on our society, which would accelerate the success of world evangelisation.



The principle of Sabbath obedience under the Old Covenant was possibly the most prominent signs of obedience to God’s Law. As previously stated, while showing that the Moral Law and the Old Covenant were not synonymous, the New Covenant reiterates nine of the Ten Commandments, while omitting the Sabbath command. Therefore, based on this principle alone, the Sabbath is not a New Testament Command. Kevin Conner says-

The Sabbath day, as circumcision, was given as a sign between the Lord and the nation of Israel. It was given for a perpetual Covenant to the nation (Exodus 31:12-18). It was included in the Ten Commandments written on tables of stone (Exodus 20:1-21; Deuteronomy 5:1-21). These were written with the finger of God.
The Jews themselves say that it was never intended for the Gentile but was the heritage of Israel. Sabbath observances presuppose a Temple, a Priesthood and a sacrifice for on this day there to be extra burnt offerings offered, besides the daily sacrifice (Numbers 28:9-10) … The Sabbath to be kept properly had to have the Sabbath sacrifices, the body and blood of two lambs. By this the Lord was teaching Israel that true rest can only be upon the basis of the atoning blood. And of course this necessitated an officiating Priesthood to offer the sacrifices. But the Jew today is devoid of these things, not having their Temple. Hence there can be no true Sabbath without blood atonement. . . When Jesus came, He was born under the Old Covenant to fulfil it and abolish it at the Cross, as to its ceremonial laws. Just before his death He established the New Covenant in His own body and blood (Matthew 26:26-28)
“The Feasts of Israel”, by Kevin Conner, Bible Temple-Conner Publications, Portland Oregon, 1980

On this basis the principle of the Sabbath being a command of God within the New Covenant is without foundation. Yet, for the believer living by the spirit of the law, not its letter, its offers them an opportunity to show to God their loyalty.



The Old Covenant saints looked forward to the promise of God, that they would be saved and receive their inheritance: heaven (Heb. 11:10). That promise of a rest from works, and everlasting contentment in heaven, was not to be made possible without Jesus doing all the work necessary for redemption. Thus the Old Covenant saints were not perfected without us who are of the Newer Covenant (Heb. 11:40).

The New Covenant incorporates God’s eternal, and only, plan of salvation. This salvation is received by meeting the Testamental conditions of faith and obedience (Hab. 2:4; Rom. 1:17; Heb. 5:9) which applied and apply in both the Older Covenant and the New. While the faith required under the terms of the Older Covenant was anticipatory, under the New it is commemorative. Yet the obedience under the Older Covenant required adherence to highly transitory rituals and ceremonies (“works”). These works were like a passing shadow which disappears as the sun reveals its maximum light upon an object. The object of these shadows was the work of Christ, or more accurately, Christ Himself. Each of the Older Covenant’s works finds its fulfilment and completion in Jesus. We now live in a fuller revelation of God’s light, and while there still remains many New Covenant shadows which point to our ultimate inheritance (such as Holy Communion, Water Baptism, Marriage, etc.), the Sabbath stands as one of the greatest shadows of what the New Covenant means: that Jesus Christ is our Sabbath.

In Christ we find true rest (Matt. 11:28). This rest that Jesus spoke with so much enviable familiarity is found in knowing God. As one studies ancient religions of the Far East, there appears to be an ache of the human spirit that comes out in the sacred writings of so many of these religions. That ache is their quest for knowing the True God while settling for a religion of man-made guesses and philosophy. Nearly each of these religions originated with the assumption that if they could know the Supreme Being they would find “rest”. Many of these religions call it being “absorbed” into God. Thank God that there is way to know the True God that He Himself has revealed. In this revelation He also declares, while graciously confirming the ache of every human spirit, that true rest can only come from knowing God (Matt. 11:27-28). So the Sabbath stood as a constant reminder to the people under the Older Covenant that there was rest that they were yet to have. Not until the Jesus came did God’s ultimate revelation of Himself appear to mankind. His life, work, and death have provided the rest that every human soul aches for.

The New Covenant revelation of the Sabbath is only partly fulfilled here and now. There still remains an ultimate rest to be entered into. This rest from our bodies of sin will be realised when we receive our resurrected bodies at the coming of our Lord, and enter into eternal bliss with Him (Rom. 6:4-9; 8:22-25). By celebrating the New Covenant Sabbath, we sacramentally celebrate our awaiting rest. The Sabbath then stands as a shadow in the Older Covenant, and also in the New, though fulfilling the Older Covenantal hopes.



At this point the issue needs clarification as to the practical celebration of the Sabbath. Seventh Day Adventists see that the Sabbath is still Saturday, the seventh day. Traditional Christianity has long viewed Sunday, the first day of the week, as the time to celebrate the Sabbath. Perhaps alluding to some contention over this issue during the first century AD, Paul says-

“One person esteems one day above another; another esteems every day alike. Let each be fully convinced in his own mind. He who observes the day, observes it to the Lord; and he who does not observe the day, to the Lord he does not observe it…”
Romans 14:5-6a

Paul’s solution to each believer was to be fully persuaded that what they were doing was honoring to God. The danger of identifying the “Lord’s Day” with Saturday is the temptation to lapse back into a works mentality of the Older Covenant. For this Paul says to the Galatians with disgust-

“But now after you have known God, or rather are known by God, how is it that you turn again to the weak and beggarly elements, to which you desire again to be in bondage? You observe days and months and seasons and years. I am afraid for you, lest I have labored for you in vain.”
Galatians 4:9-10

It was the design of God to transfer the celebration of the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday based on the following reasons-

  1. That was the Day that Christ rose from the dead.

  2. Sunday marked the beginning of the New Covenant.

  3. The First day of the week represents new beginnings (we are made new in Christ).

  4. It follows the day set aside to commemorate the Older Covenant, just the New Covenant follows the Old.

  5. The Holy Spirit was conferred on the First Church on a Sunday, thus sealing God’s recognition of this day as the Day to celebrate the New Covenant and remember the principles of the Sabbath.

The First Church immediately recognised Sunday as the Lord’s Day, their Sabbath (Acts 20:7; 1Cor. 16:2). Throughout Acts Paul was often recorded going to the local synagogue on the Sabbath for evangelistic reasons. This stands in contrast with his meeting with the local church on the first day of the week to worship, preach and break bread.

The invitation to celebrate our love for, and relationship with, the LORD is made available to every believer worldwide every Sunday. It is not a work, but a response of the heart. Thus, many of the prophets foresaw a day when God would have a people who would love Him not because of an external Law, but because the Law would be written on their hearts (Jer. 31:31-34). This involved honoring God one day out of seven as a special mark of His last days people-

“…They shall keep My laws and My statutes in all
My appointed meetings, and they shall hallow My Sabbaths”
Ezekiel 44:24 (refer to 46:1, 3 also)


I conclude this survey with some practical suggestions for how we might employ the principles of the Sabbath for today. And I offer a challenge to those Christians who claim that we should continue to observe the Mosaic Sabbath. For those who advocate carrying over the Old Covenant Sabbath into the New Covenant, they must logically embrace all of the associated penalties as well. This includes stoning if found lighting a fire, for example. But if we regard the Sabbath laws and their penalties as revealing our dire spiritual and moral condition (that we are unable to even fully rest from our own efforts to be made right from God) we soon see how the Sabbath pointed to the rest in Christ. Afterall, for those who advocate a carried-over Sabbath for today they must recognise that doing anything on which ever day they decide to observe as as the New Testament Sabbath is going to be almost impossible. In today’s world, motor vehicles create firein their engines which enable them to work, light switches create a small fire-spark which enables electric current and even using an electronic appliances would be a violation of this prohibition. Added to this that most of us use utilities (water, gas, electricity, municipal rates) which is considered trading on the Sabbath! We should soon realise that simply cannot keep the Sabbath in the strictest sense. We must therefore look to embrace the spirit (rather than the letter) of the Sabbath for today. This should look like-

1. Celebrating the “Lord’s day” on Sunday not Saturday for the reasons given above.

2. Using this day as a day of rest (from usual activities) and worshipful reflection.

3. Gathering together with the Body of Christ with whom we are in community for the purpose of congregational worship (which builds our faith in and devotion to Christ), the reception of the explained Word of God (which captivates our hearts and renews our minds) and provides a witness to the world of the saving grace of Christ.

4. The appropriate setting for the proclamation of the Gospel with the object being the conversion of sinners to Christ.

John Stott, in the book- Contemporary Issues Facing Christians Today, answers the question about how we should regulate work and activity on Sundays with the acronym- R E S T –

R ecreation

mergency services

ervices (Utilities)


But Stott similarly stresses the importance of honouring Sundays in the spirit of the Sabbath (rest and worshipful reflection). Believers should make honouring Christ in a congregational community a priority for their Sundays. And if possible, they should worship congregationally near the beginning of the day and near its close.



The greatest expression of what the Sabbath meant is found in Jesus. He is our Rest. He is our basis of relationship with God. He is our sacrifice. He is our Temple, and everything else typified for the believer under the Older Covenant. The first church recognised that His resurrection was the new beginning and the fulfilment of everything the Sabbath stood for, thus they celebrated the Sabbath on Sunday (the first day of the week). By doing this they were showing their love for God while keeping His Law (Ten Commandments). This is when God has appointed for His people today to meet and worship Him. Not in legalism, but in Spirit and in Truth.

© Andrew Corbett, 1998 – 2017

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