Eschatology In The First Century

Eschatology In The First Century

home > articles > Modern Mis-readings of First Century Eschatology


I’ve just finished teaching on a four-part series on the Apostle Paul. I’m now doing a four-part series on his protégé, Timothy. From a research point of view, Paul is a goldmine. He is one of the most written about people in history. But Timothy isn’t. We don’t know nearly as much about Timothy as we do for Paul. Some of the reasons for this are obvious. These include: (i) the nature of Timothy’s ministry (as the messenger and representative of Paul) meant that he was conveying what Paul wrote to the churches he visited and thus there was no cause for him to write anything (because he was physically present); (ii) Timothy succeeded Paul when the Neronic persecution had commenced in which the Apostle Paul was martyred in early 65 AD and tens of thousands of Christians were also martyred as it began; (iii) therefore, many of those who knew Timothy directly were unable to record their memories of him because of this violent period of martyrdom. But in my research I came across one of the most novel explanations I’d ever heard of…

We have a tremendous amount of testimony between the years A.D. 30 and 70 but then it all goes deathly quiet. There is hardly a single testimony either in the Church or secular history  for three or four decades of what was occurring during those lost years. And even after that, we have only a few scraps of tradition from a handful of individuals  which was recalled by writers of the third and fourth centuries. If the Church was indeed thriving as ACTS would seem to indicate, then where did everybody go? Why was there nobody putting the pen to paper so as to depict for us some of the cataclysmic events which were transpiring in their time. Gradually a few traditions begin to take shape giving us some sort of idea what was going on, but nothing compared to what was written and preserved before A.D. 70. How does one account for this if all of these believers were indeed still Missionizing the world?  It was as if they had vanished and were no longer there. It was as if they had all died or disappeared into thin air. And that is indeed what appears to have actually happened. What other explanation can be given to explain what became of all those voices which were suddenly silenced? Christ returned and gathered together His church into heaven just as He had promised, just as He had warned them that He would, as a thief in the night.

The anonymous author of this particular website was aware of the Neronic persecution (64 – 68) but believed the reason that virtually nothing was written about Timothy and Paul’s other companions was that they were all raptured. He claimed that this fulfilled the reference to Christ’s ‘coming’ in Matthew 24 and Paul’s statement about believers being ‘caught up with Christ in the air’ from First Thessalonians 4. If this had indeed happened, it might indeed explain why so little is recorded about the next generation of apostles succeeding the Apostles of the Lamb, since, they were snatched away. The author offered no supporting evidence for this claim except that in his opinion it explained the surprising silence from the historical record, and the most natural fulfilment of the two particular prophetic passages mentioned. But there are at least three insurmountable problems to this view.



This author grounds their view in Full-Preterism. To be fair, not all Full-Preterists share this view. You can read a comparison between Full-Preterism and Partial-Preterism here. Basically, Full-Preterism makes the assumption that all Bible prophecies were fulfilled by 70 AD. This means that they regard all of the Book of Revelation having been fulfilled – including, the resurrection of all the dead (and living) to appear before the judgment throne of God to receive either eternal life or eternal damnation. By inference as well, it also means that the Full Preterist must believe (since they believe the General Resurrection has happened and all evil has been vanquished) that “when the perfect comes” (1Cor. 13:10) has also been fulfilled and therefore there are no charismatic/miraculous gifts exercised since 70AD. But this demonstrably not the case. Prof. Craig Keener’s two volume work, Miracles, documents thousands of verified examples of such Charismatic and miraculous manifestations. Dr. Lee Strobel’s recent book, The Case For Miracles, does a similar thing. 

An excerpt from Dr. Craig Keener’s book, Miracles, where he professes his acceptance of modern miracles

There are of course some Full-Preterists, such as Dr. John Noe, who identify as Charismatic/Pentecostal, but they must be inconsistent in their Full-Preterism to do so. While this is a foundational problem for Full-Preterists, there are also some serious hermeneutical problems for those who claim that a rapture occurred during the Neronic persecution. Firstly, the very concept of the rapture itself. It is normally Dispensationalists who promote the concept of a rapture. I have responded to this in my article, Why The Rapture Has Ruptured. The main text used to promote the idea a rapture is First Thessalonians 4:15-17. But a closer examination of this passage reveals that it is discussing the nature of the general resurrection (note the expression, “the dead in Christ shall rise”) not a ‘rapture’. The rapture is the notion that believers will be physically translated from earth into the eternal presence of Christ. Thus, the Full-Preterist who believes that First Thessalonians 4 refers to this notion is committed to believing that it has already happened (whereas the Dispensationalist believes that it will happen). It’s worth noting that this interpretation of First Thessalonians 4 was only developed in the nineteenth century. There is no record prior to this of anyone believing in such a notion – for good reason: exegeting of this text does not support it



The author of ‘the eye of the needle’ website seems to be arguing from silence:

“It was as if they had vanished and were no longer there. It was as if they had all died or disappeared into thin air. And that is indeed what appears to have actually happened. What other explanation can be given to explain what became of all those voices which were suddenly silenced?”
The Eye of the Needle

But there is a reasonable case from the historical records that Timothy had reached the age of 80 while continuing to minister in Ephesus. While protesting an outrageous idolatrous festival called Catagogia, the mobs clubbed him to death. A less reliable tradition continues that some of his remains were later carried to Constantinople.

Abridged by Photius, relate, that under the emperor Nerva, in the year 97… St. Timothy was slain with stones and clubs, by the heathens, whilst he was endeavouring to oppose their idolatrous ceremonies on one of their festivals called Catagogia, kept on the 22nd of January, on which the idolaters walked in troops, every one carrying in one hand an idol, and in the other a club. St. Paulinus, 18 Theodorus Lector, and Philostorgius, 19 informs us, that his relics were with great pomp translated to Constantinople in the year 356, in the reign of Constantius.
Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73),  Volume I: January, The Lives of the Saints,  1866

Thus, in summary, the notion that Timothy and others of Paul’s companions were physically translated or raptured from earth into Christ’s presence has a theological problem, a Biblical hermeneutical problem, and a historical problem – all of which I consider to be insurmountable.

Andrew Corbett
16th January 2019

Ancient Mis-readings of The Book of Revelation

Ancient Mis-readings of The Book of Revelation

home > articles > book of revelation > Ancient Mis-readings of The Book of Revelation


John Calvin wrote a commentary on every book of the Bible, except the Book of Revelation. Eighteenth century Bible Commentator, Matthew Henry, perhaps the most read and accessible commentary available today, did not write a commentary on the Book of Revelation before he died (it was written posthumously by someone else). Since such great minds as Calvin and Henry were reluctant to tackle the Book of Revelation, any new contender offering an explanation of the Bible’s concluding book would be well advised to do so with great caution. Added to this is the poor record of other great minds of history who have dared to claim to understand the details of Revelation enough to make bold declarations of when Christ would return and the end of the world would be! Consider these people and their interpretations… 

Matthew Henry's 6 Volume Commentary Set, which Matthew Henry did not himself complete.

Matthew Henry’s 6 Volume Commentary Set, which Matthew Henry did not himself complete.


Bishop Irenaeus of Lyon, France (140 – 202AD)

Irenaeus (140 – 202) was the disciple of Polycarp who himself was the disciple of the Apostle John. He proposed a method of interpreting the Book of Revelation that including the measurements of Noah’s ark. His views were particularly promoted by two third century church leaders, Hippolytus of Rome and Sextus Julius Africanus. Their conclusion was that Christ would return and that the end of the world would occur in 500A.D. But their method for interpreting the Book of Revelation soon became demonstrably wrong. Yet, for many church leaders, it seems to have sown the idea that the goal of interpreting the Book of Revelation was to determine how it predicted events for our lifetimes – to the extent of seeing the end of world coincide with the return of Jesus.

It’s worth noting that shortly after this speculation about the Book of Revelation, the Church Council at Nicea Turkey formulated a creed, The Nicene Creed, which was, and is, universally accepted by Christians.


WE BELIEVE in one God, the Father Almighty,
Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things 
visible and invisible;

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God,
begotten of the Father before 
all worlds, God of God, Light of Light,
Very God of Very God, begotten, not made,
being of one 
substance with the Father, by whom all things were made;
who for us men, and for our salvation, 
came down from heaven,
and, was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary,
and was made 
man, and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate.
He suffered and was buried, and the third 
day he rose again according to the Scriptures,
and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right 
hand of the Father.
And he shall come again with glory to judge both the quick and the dead, whose 
kingdom shall have no end.

And we believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life,
who proceedeth from the 
Father and the Son, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets.
And we believe one holy catholic and apostolic Church.
We acknowledge 
one baptism for the remission of sins.
And we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of 
the world to come.

The reason understanding this creed is important if we are seeking to properly interpret the Book of Revelation is that it makes a very clear and important statement about what the early Church believed about the return of Christ. “He shall come again with glory to judge both the quick (living) and the dead, whose kingdom shall have no end.” This statement declares –

1. Christ shall return.

2. When Christ returns it will coincide with His judgment of all the living and the dead.

3. Subsequent to Christ’s judgment of all people, He shall rule in a world where evil, injustice, and sin are banished.

It is worth noting how simple this primitive eschatology (doctrine of last things) was. 



An exact copy of Beatus of Liébana's 460 page commentary on Revelation originally copied in 970AD.

An exact copy of Beatus of Liébana’s 460 page commentary on Revelation originally copied in 970AD.

A Spanish theologian, Beatus of Liébana, wrote a commentary on the Book of Revelation in 776 A.D. which was revised in 784 and then again in 786 (as it became obvious that his earlier calculations for the return of Christ had come and gone). He landed on the date, April 6th 793 as what he believed the Book of Revelation revealed was the date of Christ’s return and the end of the world. He perpetuated the idea that it was possible to calculate the date of the return of Christ from the Book of Revelation – and that this was one of the book’s intentions.



Shortly after the failed interpretations of Beatus of Liébana, Pope Sylvester II (999 – 1003) declared that the Book of Revelation revealed that the return of Christ and the end of the world would take place on January 1st 1000 A.D. When this came and went, his interpretation was changed to January 1st 1033 (to allow for the date of Christ’s crucifixion). While it may be immediately obvious that Pope Sylvester the Second’s predicted date for the return of Christ and the end of the world was wrong, what may not be as obvious is that date-setting for the return of Christ was never the purpose of the Book of Revelation! Yet, such an assumption continued even by Biblical scholars who should have known better. For example, John Wesley somehow interpreted Revelation 12:14 to mean that the return of Christ and the millennium would commence in 1836!

Jesuit Priest, Juan Josafat Ben-Ezra

Before Wesley’s curious interpretation of Revelation 12:14, the preceding Reformers had virtually in unison interpreted the Book of Revelation as predicting the rise and fall of the Roman Catholic Church. Their view of Revelation became known as Historicism because they saw history unfolding through the pages of Revelation to their present day. In response to this, Roman Catholic authors such as Jesuit Priest, Emmanuel Lacunza (who used the pseudonym Juan Josafat Ben-Ezra), wrote a book, “The Coming of the Messiah in Glory and Majesty” which promoted a counter-view to Historicism called Futurism. This book heavily influenced a Protestant minister, Edward Irving (1792 – 1834), a Church of Scotland Minister, who translated it from Spanish into English. By 1832, Irving’s public lectures on the Book of Revelation were attracting large crowds and laid the groundwork for the rise of Dispensational Millennialism.



The 19th Century seemed to be a time when speculation about the Book of Revelation abounded. Two very influential views began in the 19th century. For example, In 1831 both Edward Irving and John Nelson Darby began to postulate a two-staged return of Christ. Some believe that Irving was influenced by a young girl, Margaret McDonald, who apparently received this ‘revelation’ from the Lord of a “rapture” of the Church before a time of Great Tribulation at the end of the age. The view that Edward Irving and John Nelson Darby helped to birth is known as ‘Dispensationalism’. It’s interesting to note that the concept of the ‘rapture’ had never been heard of before this time.

Other preachers also became fascinated with how the Book of Revelation should be understood. In America, William Miller (1782 – 1849) interpretted the ‘mark of the beast’ as the observance by the mainstream church of Sunday as the day of worship. His followers, the Millerites, became the precurser to the founding of the Seventh Day Adventists. William Miller’s understanding of the Book of Revelation led him to predict the end of the world and Christ’s return would be October 22nd, 1844.

In a revival of another ancient heresy called Arianism, Charles Taze Russell began teaching that Jesus was the eternal Son of God. He also predicted that the Millennium would be an opportunity for everyone who has died without Christ, to receive a second chance to do so. He predicted Christ would return to establish this kingdom in October 1874  (See Watch Tower, 1906 July 15 for a detailed account).

In Russell’s doctrinal chronology the most important dates were 1874 and 1914:
“The chapter in SCRIPTURE STUDIES, Vol. II, showing the parallels between the Jewish and Christian Dispensations, makes prominent four dates, viz., (1) October, 1874; (2) April, 1878; (3) October, 1881, and (4) October, 1914;” Watch Tower 1911 June 15 p.190
“The careful student will have observed that the period designated ‘The Time of the End’ is very appropriately named, since not only does the Gospel age close in it, but in it, also, all prophesies relating to the close of this age terminate, reaching their fulfillments. The same class of readers will have noticed, too, the special importance of the last 40 of these 115 years (1874-1914), called ‘The End’ or ‘Harvest.'” Studies in the Scriptures Series III – Thy Kingdom Comep.121

Charles Taze Russell's prophetic-timetable

Charles Taze Russell’s prophetic-timetable


If Biblical Prophecy theories and guesses abounded in the nineteenth century, they exploded in the twentieth (just as they seemed to approaching the end of the first Millennium A.D.). Nearly every decade of the 20th century witnessed some new Prophetic Time-Line explanation of the Book of Revelation. Then there were the novelised series of books by Tim LaHaye and Jerry Jenkins, which sold in the millions, called Left Behind, which fictionalised the 1835 invention of the ‘rapture’. As the twentieth century drew closer to the turn of the new millennium, increasingly bizarre speculations increased which presumed that Dispensational Futurism was the correct interpretation of Revelation. As the introduction of credit cards became more popular from the 1970s, “End-Times” preachers widened their speculation about interpreting the Book of Revelation and interpreted the ‘mark of the beast’ as a computerised system of monitoring all people on planet earth. In Australia this speculation was also fuelled by the 1974 introduction of the ‘bankcard’ with its symbol which bore a striking resemblance to Revelation 13’s “666”. 

In the early 1980s, these End-Times preachers attempted to leverage the nationalising of Israel in 1948 to claim that the end of the world and Christ’s return would be forty years (the duration of a Biblical generation) after this event. This led to many of these preachers declaring that Christ would definitely return in 1988! Edgar C. Whisenant published a book along this line, “88 Reasons Why The Rapture Will be In 1988“. In 1988 Hal Lindsay published the first edition of his Late Great Planet Earth.

The rise of the ‘Televangelist’ in the 1980s was almost the perfect storm for speculative Bible prophecy prediction preachers. It seemed as if every televangelist had some ‘revelation’ about the Book of Revelation that enabled them to know something about the future that no other televangelist knew. Apart from Hal Lindsay, other high profile televangelists began to make their predictions on when the ‘rapture’ would be, including Lester Sumrall who in 1994 declared that the millennium would begin in 2000. Three years later, not to be outdone, Kenneth Hagin predicted that the rapture would take place in 1997. Then in 1999, Jerry Falwell declared that the return of Christ would certainly happen within ten years and that the Anti-Christ was alive now and “was a male Jew”. 

As happened after the turn of the Millennium in 1,000 A.D., speculative eschatology is becoming far less common. This is a good thing because it might cause us to examine the Book of Revelation by using the same hermeneutical principles that we use to interpret any other book of the Bible. These principles include – 

  1. Understand a Book/passage/verse of the Bible in its context (literary genre, historical background, audience, author, flow of thought)

  2. Use Scripture to interpret Scripture – always use a clear passage to interpret an obscure one.

  3. Seek the original intention of the passage by ‘looking over the shoulder’ of the original audience.

  4. Never interpret a Scripture in a way that contradicts the overall message of Scripture.

I talk more about this in my eBook, The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible, which you might find helpful if you would like to understand the Book of Revelation.

Andrew Corbett

Dr. Andrew Corbett teaching on the Book of Revelation at 'OURchurch - Burleigh, Queensland'

Dr. Andrew Corbett teaching on the Book of Revelation at ‘OURchurch – Burleigh, Queensland’ November 2018

Environmental Theology

Environmental Theology

home > articles > Examining And Calling For A Theology of The Environment


A world without trees would be a world without bees which would become a world without birds which would become a world without natural pest control made worst by the desperately high rates of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the dangerously low levels of oxygen available which would cause a rise in the rate of global warming and an even bigger hole in the ozone layer thus increasing the rapid demise of the few remaining forms of human life within an estimated period of about 5 years. Should we be concerned?

Destruction of the Amazon RainforestIt’s claimed that the Amazon rain forest is apparently being cut down at an equivalent rate of several football stadiums every hour! In Indonesia there are thousands of acres of old-growth forests being cut down and burned at an alarming rate. Many parts of Australia have now been turned into dust-bowls and salinity-danger-zones due to the belligerent destruction of bushland. Globally, rainforests are being destroyed at the following rates-

  • 2.47 acres (1 hectare) per second: equivalent to two U.S. football fields

  • 150 acres (60 hectares) per minute

  • 214,000 acres (86,000 hectares) per day: an area larger than New York City

  • 78 million acres (31 million hectares) per year: an area larger than Poland

  • In Brazil 5.4 million acres per year (estimate averaged for period 1979-1990)

  • 6-9 million indigenous people inhabited the Brazilian rainforest in 1500.


All around the world there appears to be a growing movement of young people who are deeply and passionately concerned about the conservation of the environment. This is evidenced by the rise of ‘single issue’ Green political parties which generally attract younger people who are disenchanted with the mainstream political parties and their seeming inactivity when it comes to environmentalism.

The basic premise behind the growing environmental movement is that we are losing forever valuable old growth forests which deserve to preserved. By keeping such forests we are helping to sustain the wildlife and insect-life which depends upon these forests for their survival, and therefore ultimately we are helping to sustain human life as well.



The response to this worldwide concern over the state of our old growth forests has generally been shallow especially from the Evangelical and Neo-Evangelical (Pentecostals, Charismatics, Seeker-Driven) segments of the Church. We can no longer allow theological liberals to claim to be the only reasoned response to Church’s position on environmentalism. The reason for this is that these theologically liberal scholars are biased to a worldview that is at best described as deistic (God somehow initiated but did not intervene in creation), and at worst can only be described as outright nihilistic (“nothing”…there is no God). These positions are clearly not acceptable to those who have a higher regard for the authority of the Scriptures.



We all view the world through a window which interprets for us what we see. For the Christian our “window” helps us to interpret life as a deliberate gift from God who actively cares for this world via intervention, the ultimate of which was when the Word became flesh. He has created all life by His fiat command and placed man (His image bearer) as the crown of that creation. God has given the earth as a gift to man whom He has commissioned to exercise management over.

But for many naturalists, their window causes them to view the world through a window which causes them to interpret life as a fragile result of random, chaotic, chemical reactions which have evolved over billions of years of death and struggle filtering out the least adapted and producing what we have today. Within this worldview, life has come from natural matter and diverged into its various forms. Therefore, all life (human, animal, insect, plant) is of equal value. This worldview is clearly the philosophy behind certain segments of the animal rights and nature conservation movements. Increasingly, it is beginning to influence the worldview of Christians as well perhaps largely due to the current vacuum in Christian thinking in this area.



The worldviews of Biblical Christianity and Naturalism are opposite. Little wonder. On the one hand we have the belief that God gave life to man, while on the other hand we have the generally unspoken belief that man gave life to God (that is, man in his ignorance, prior to his scientific discoveries, created God as an explanation for the universe). The Bible is the inspired Word of God or it is the invented word of man. Jesus Christ was either God in the flesh or just another good man. There is either a Lawgiver who has revealed His laws to man, or the only law common to man is don’t hurt anyone (or thing).

Little wonder that these almost religious environmentalists are keen to dismantle what they regard as the “old” worldview of Christianity. This encompasses an agenda of Identity rights, Animal rights, Removal of Religious privileges (such as Blasphemy laws, Sunday trading regulations, and the redefining of Religious Vilification targeted at Christians) and the scathing attacks on (what they regard as) anachronistic institutions (particularly the Church).

Professing to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man; and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.
Romans 1:22-23

This worldview regards all forms and expression of life from an absolutely egalitarian view point. This means, animal and plant life is equal in value to human life; gender distinctions are irrelevant; and, sexual orientation is irrelevant. Ultimately it is not God who gives life to all, it is nature (what is natural, matter) that has given life to all. Thus God is not just in nature, He is nature. That is, He is not merely in the trees, He is the trees. This is actually a theological system known as pan-theism.

who exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.
Romans 1:25

Christians should recognise that this is the driving spirit behind much of the environmental movement. It has arisen to fill the spiritual vacuum created by an abdication of Christian thought on the matter.



Then God blessed them, and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” And God said, “See, I have given you every herb that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed; to you it shall be for food.
Genesis 1:28-29

The Biblical worldview includes God’s prescription for the management of creation: animal, insect, and plant life. Creation was never meant to be abused by environmental vandalism. But neither was meant to take dominion over man. Man alone bears the image of God and as such takes a place of honour in the order of creation. This highest privilege carries with it commensurate responsibility.

To claim that man has the right to entirely destroy irreplaceable eco-systems in the name of being God’s agents of dominion over the earth is unsupportable from Scripture. One could only imagine the scene of God coming down in the cool of the day to visit Adam to find that Eden had been completely felled and Adam was preparing to develop and subdivide this new land release!(?)

“When you besiege a city for a long time, while making war against it to take it, you shall not destroy its trees by wielding an ax against them; if you can eat of them, do not cut them down to use in the siege, for the tree of the field is man’s food.
Deuteronomy 20:19

The Scriptures teach a high regard for nature: both animals and trees. Its worth remembering that it was Christians who started the RSPCA and many other environmentally minded organisations. The Scriptures teach that we are stewards over God’s creation.

A righteous man regards the life of his animal,
But the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel (toward animals
Proverbs 12:10

Christians should be on guard against any worldview which removes God as Creator and therefore as the Life and Law Giver. We must live out the revelation that in the beginning was the Word, by Whom all things exist, who around 2,000 years ago became flesh and dwelt among us. He calls to be stewards of this Creation, not to worship it.

Dr. Andrew Corbett

© Andrew Corbett, Legana, Tasmania, 20th December 2003



home  >  articles > How Old Does The Bible State The Earth Is?

How Old Is The Earth According To The Bible?
Examining the claims of Young Earth Creationists

One of the most contentious issues among Christians today is the age of the universe. Is it 6000 years old like 17th century Bishop Ussher calculated, or is it around 14,200,000,000 years old as qualified scientists say? How we determine the answer determines how we interpret the Bible and understand the world around us…

The opening verse of Genesis is perhaps the most famous, and probably the most read, verse in the Bible. It is so plain, so clear, so unambiguous, that nearly every English translation of the Scriptures for the past 400 years has rendered it identically. Of all the statements that God could have chosen to utter first in His revelation to mankind, He gave us this one. Little wonder. If this statement is proven to be false then the entire credibility of the Bible is undermined. But if this statement is found to be true its ramifications are infinite!


But a strange thing has happened ever since an Irish Bishop published some genealogical calculations around 400 years ago. He asserted that Genesis 1:1 could be dated: October 23rd 4004 BC. Within years of this assertion being published it was incorporated into the margins of Bibles by Publishers and led to this date being accepted by Bible readers around the English-speaking-world almost without question. Bishop Ussher could never have foreseen that his chronological speculating would result in a U.S. Supreme Court trial in which trusting Christians would be humiliated!

If we add up all the genealogies in the Bible going all the way back to Adam, we end up with a date range of Adam being created around 4000-5000 BC, Bishop Ussher did. I never questioned this. But the Bible’s genealogies were never intended to be used this way. This is partly evident because there are massive and deliberate gaps in the Biblical genealogies. This becomes evident when we compare come of the same genealogical records in two different Biblical passages. For example-

  • In Exodus 6:16-20, four generations are given from Levi to Moses, yet in First Chronicles 7:23-27 lists 11 generations (many more than four) between Levi’s brother Joseph and Moses’ successor Joshua.
  • The structure of the genealogies in Genesis also implies that the names could have been carefully selected with deliberate omissions, as in Matthew 1. Both the Genesis 5 and 11 genealogies include ten names, and each ends with a father having three sons. Enoch, the key name in the Genesis 5 list, is seventh in the list, paralleling Lamech, the seventh in the list of the generations of Cain’s descendants (Gen. 4:17-19). 

There is a huge difference in time taken between four generations and eleven generations! And this is just one example of how the genealogies cannot be used accurately determine dates. As one Biblical Hebrew scholar said about the peculiar way the Bible records genealogies, it would be perfectly in keeping if the Bible said David was 40 when he begat Joseph who was betrothed to Mary. But it wasn’t this information alone which caused me see that Young Earth Creationism was not a faithful reading of the Scripture. After all, I still couldn’t reconcile an Old Earth position and death before the Fall. Since Romans 5:12 stated there was no death in the Universe before Adam and Eve fell into sin, this verse alone made Old Earth Creationism impossible to reconcile with Scripture. But Dr. Ross dealt with this in his book as well. 

¶ Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned—
Romans 5:12

This is a major tenent of Young Earth Creationism – that Adam introduced death into the Universe – and it is entirely based on this verse (there are no other verses in the Bible which support or state this). Taking a slower look at this verse though we notice that it doesn’t say what it is claimed to be saying. It does not say that Adam introduced to death to the world of all living things – “and so death spread to all men because all sinned“. Death came to mankind– not all living things. This was a huge paradigm shift for me. It also enabled me to reconcile some of the other Creation passages of the Bible conisistently. For example, Psalm 104 is a Creation Psalm. To claim that since the last few verses of this Psalm are the Psalmist’s reflection on God’s creation with a prayer (note the opening phrase of this closing section- “I will sing to the Lord…May my meditation be pleasing to Him...” vss. 33-34) and that sinners be consumed and the wicked be no more  means that this not a Creation Psalm is an exegetically weak argument. The Psalm states that lions were created to seek God for their prey (which necessitates the death of other animals from the beginning of creation). 

The young lions roar for their prey,seeking their food from God.
Psalm 104:21

God has designed the digestive systems of lions to eat meat. To suggest that all lions were vegetarian and then suddenly carniverous when Adam sinned is to state something that the Biblical Text does not say or invoke some kind of hyper-evolution. Far from death being a bad or morally evil thing, God had perfectly designed death to fulfil His purpose of one day vanquishing all evil from the universe. It is the result of God’s perfect design that certain bacteria only has a three-hour life-cycle, and that rabbits only live for about 12 years – not the result of the Fall. It is a foundational principle of God’s redemption of His creation that reaches its ultimate expression in the Cross that life comes from death.

Researching the Biblical expression “there was evening and there was morning” we discover that it only used in Genesis 1. Days don’t usually start with evenings. This indicates that the days of Genesis 1 are not ordinary days. The Hebrew word for day Yom is a linguistic wildcard word that takes its meaning from the context it is in. For example, in Genesis 2:4, the entire 6 ‘days’ of Creation plus the 7th ‘day’ of rest (which does not have an “evening and morning” concluding statement to it) are called a “yom” which most English translators render “week” – even though it is the same Hebrew word as Genesis 1 uses.

I grew up in a church where it was promoted that the Bible taught the earth was around 6,000 years old and that God created everything in six literal, consecutive, 24-hour days. For years I never questioned this. The global scientific community had been blinded by sin and was not able to interpret the natural world due to their spiritual blindness. Hence, any measurements they made based on the ordinary laws of physics were completely unreliable because they were unregenerate and were looking at a universe totally depraved by sin which made estimating its age near impossible. For years I accepted this without question.

For some reason, in the church I grew up in, we were tacitly taught that if the earth was older than 6,000 years old the entire credibility of the Bible would be undermined. For those Christians who embarked on a study of physical science through higher education and learned how the age of things was calculated, they were soon confronted with a major contradiction in their understanding of the Bible.

Oldest trees in the worldFor example, 6,000 years for the age of the earth evaporates in the presence of tree-rings. As Christian students in universities examined how trees add a new tree ring to every year of their life they discovered that some trees have over 10,000 rings! (Becker, B. and B. Kromer, 1993 The Continental Tree-Ring Record — Absolute Chronology, C14  Calibration and Climatic Change at 11 ka.“, Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 103 (1-2): 67-71). Ice cores reveal at least how old the earth is.The Guinness Book of Records lists the oldest tree ever discovered as a Californian Redwood at over 10,000 years old but estimates it to have been closer to 12,000 years old. As well as tree-rings, polar ice layers reveal that the earth is at least over 420,000 years old (“Greenland Ice Cores: Frozen in Time”, R. Alley and M. Bender, Scientific American, February 1998 pp. 80-85).

Even if these natural measurements have an error rate of a few percent, there is still a huge difference between 420,000 years and 6,000 years! Another means to measure the age of the universe that students of physical science are confronted with is: starlight. This is what highly regarded Christian apologist, Greg Koukl, says about this-

Greg Koukl with Andrew CorbettOne fact has continued to hold my attention in the ongoing debate between creationists on the age of the universe. I can see stars. On a clear night I see thousands of them. Astronomers seem to know a lot about these twinkling specks of light in the heavens, even though they are very far away. This observation prompts a simple question for those who believe the universe is relatively young–thousands of years old and not billions. Do stars exist? Are these astronomers measuring characteristics of actual heavenly bodies when they apply their discipline? “Of course stars exist,” is the reply. “We can see them.” But this raises a problem for the young-earth view. The existence of stars the way we see them is evidence for an old earth, not a young one. If some stars are millions of light years away, then their light must have traveled for millions of years for us to see it, making the recent-creation view impossible.

Whenever these age-measurement tools (tree-rings, ice-cores, star-light) were raised to support the scientific idea that the earth is much much older than 6,000 – 10,000 years old, my childhood church responded by saying that God would have created these things to look old. Greg Koukl goes on to address this issue as well-


This point has not been lost on young-earthers, who offer a standard response. Genesis indicates that when God created Adam and Eve they appeared as adults. In the same way, God created the universe with the appearance of age. Light from stars millions of light years away from the earth was created in transit. Observers on earth (Adam and Eve) could see the star instantly, in spite of the great distances, in spite of the fact that the universe was only days old. This tidy rejoinder seems so sensible at first glance it’s easy to be mislead by it. It’s irresistible to those Christians who have a weakness for snappy explanations that save the paradigm.

Such answers may fend off attack for the moment, but often do not have the backbone to survive closer scrutiny. This one does not. First, this comeback is a tacit admission that the universe does, in fact, appear old. This concedes a tremendous amount of ground, weakening the young-earther’s case considerably. Isn’t it safer to draw conclusions on the way things actually look rather than suggest some divine sleight of hand?

Second, it’s not clear that the observation is even accurate. There is a difference between the appearance of maturity and the appearance of age. True, Adam and Eve were created as adults. There’s no evidence, though, that they appeared old–that is, aged. When something appears aged, there is evidence that the passage of time has left its mark. There may be calluses on the hands, wrinkling of the skin due to sun exposure, or plaque build-up in the circulatory system. These are bona fide signs of age. Simply being physically mature is not the same as aging. Starlight actually shows signs of age. The distance it needs to travel to be visible on earth requires the passage of massive amounts of time. Starlight is not mature; it is old. Third, even if the account suggests Adam was created with the appearance of age, where in the text do we get the idea that the entire universe was created like that? There was a practical necessity for creating the first humans as adults. They had to accomplish adult tasks right from the outset.

What practical necessity required God to instantly create other features of the world with the appearance of age? Why the “appearance” of millions of years of erosion on the moon? Why the deep canyons half way around the world from Eden that “appear” to have been slowly carved out of solid rock by running water? Why do the walls of these canyons reveal earth that “appears” to have been laid down one millimeter at a time by ancient accretions of atmospheric dust? “God’s ways are not our ways,” they reply. True enough, but that only applies when we know how God has acted but don’t understand why. Without an explicit statement from the text that the entire universe actually was created with the appearance of age, and lacking good reason why God might do so, we have no justification for assuming He did. The case gets weaker and weaker as the layers of speculation mount. These are serious problems for the God-created-the-light-in-transit theory.

Greg Koukl’s arguments against the idea that God created the world to look old makes sense. Added to these arguments, others have realised that if a God of all truth deliberately created everything in the universe to appear to be ancient (much, much older than 6,000 years) and yet tacitly claimed in Scripture that it was no more than 6,000 years old, He was at least vulnerable to the accusation of deception! As Greg Koukl asks, what purpose would God have in uniformly giving the entire universe the appearance of old age if it was in reality extremely young?



The obvious old age of the earth has led to some degree of compromise among those who promote a Young-Earth doctrine as the only way to interpret Scripture. The most common approach is to see an unspecified time-gap between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2. This gap, it is speculated, could have been millions, even billions of years. But the preparedness to see anything other than a wooden literal understanding of the six creation days as six consecutive 24 hour days continues to be uncompromising. Certain arguments are used to uphold this dogmatic idea that the days of Genesis 1 are 24 hour days. These claims include-

(i) The expression “there was evening and there was morning” in Scripture always refers to a 24 hour day.

This is illogical. The expression “evening and morning” only occurs in Genesis 1.

(ii) The Genesis 1 expression “day” is plain and simple and would ordinarily be understood by any sensible person to mean a ‘day’ of 24 hours.

This is grossly overly simplistic. The Hebrew word for day is ‘yom‘ and is various understood as a period of ‘time’ throughout Scripture and translated according to its context. This includes-

(iii) Jesus Christ said that the creation of the world took place in 144 hours (six 24 hour days).

No He didn’t. He asserted that God created, but didn’t specify how long it took.

(iv) Our current 7-day-week was instituted at creation, therefore the creation week must have been 6 literal 24 hour days.

Many scholars regard the Creation Week as an ‘analogy’ of our week. They therefore refer to the Creation Days as analogical. The Old Testament is filled with types and shadows which similarly served as analogies.

These issues strike at the heart of how we interpret and understand Scripture. If we think that words in the Bible are unequivocal (they only ever have one meaning) we will clearly miss how the Bible speaks. Words in the Bible are not unequivocal, they are equivocal. This means that the understanding of words in the Bible is derived from the context in which it is found. For example, what does the Bible mean when it uses words like “salt”, “leaven”, “darkness”, “a thousand”? The answer can only be determined from the context in which the word is found. (By the way, “salt” can mean Sodium Chloride, or Covenant, or Influence. “Leaven” can mean yeast, or moral wickedness, or sinfulness, or Gentiles.) Similarly “day” can mean a 24 hour period, a month, years, an era (“in my Grandfather’s day”) and so on.

There is good reason to consider that the Creation Days were periods of time that perhaps encompassed millions or at least hundreds of thousands of years. But there are some theological reasons offered against this understanding.

Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned—
Romans 5:12 ESV

The argument is made that day-age theories for the age of the universe are theologically inconsistent with the New Testament since there could be no death in the universe prior to Adam’s Fall (Romans 5:12). But take a closer look at Romans 5:12. Is it really saying that Adam’s sin brought death to bacteria, plankton, grass, ants, spiders, birds, whales, and antelopes? Or is it saying that as the Head of the Human Race, Adam’s sin brought spiritual death (in the sense that death is “being separated”) and separated him- and all his descendents (us) from God – Isaiah 59:2? Surely the context of Romans 5 is spiritual life in Christ. It was Adam’s sin which severed that life- but it is Christ’s death and resurrection which restores it. The question therefore is, did ants and antelopes and plankton ever enjoy that kind of spiritual life? Another way of rendering the same question is, do ants and antelopes and plankton have a ‘soul’ to be saved?

the evolution of man debunked

In the ocean of ideas, the S.S. Evolution is sinking and no life-boats have been found to rescue its passengers. And this is heart of the matter that Evolution offers no life-boats: it cannot explain how life began. This point is not lost on Evolutionary Biologists. Their hope a few decades ago was that advanced technology would unlock the mystery of life and reveal how it could be simulated. But alas, the opposite has happened. Breakthroughs in technology have done just the opposite! The discoveries into DNA have shown just how complex even “simple life forms” are. In fact, there is so much complexity and co-dependency of components that it renders evolutionary theory regarding the origins of life impossible.

The problem with compromising between Darwinian Evolution and Creationism, called Theistic Evolution, is that it rejects Scriptures direct statements about God creating ex-nihilo (from nothing). God didn’t merely watch things create themselves, as theistic evolution proposes, He directly intervened and created. This is verified by the fossil record. The sudden explosion of lower life forms on earth is referred to as the “Cambrian Explosion”. This concurs with the Biblical revelation in Genesis 1. It is not evidence for evolution or theistic evolution.



Thus says God, the LORD,
who created the heavens and stretched them out,
who spread out the earth and what comes from it,
who gives breath to the people on it
and spirit to those who walk in it:
Isaiah 42:5 (ESV)

A few decades ago Naturalists rejected the idea that an uncreated, eternal God could have created the world. Their explanation for how the universe began? They proposed that all matter was uncreated and eternal! It had always been, they said. But as the science of cosmology developed with exponentially more powerful telescopes and computers, it became more and more obvious that the universe had an origin and ‘birth’ date. When this was first proposed by scientists in the 1950s it was vigorously ridiculed by Naturalists as some attempt to claim that the universe had been “created”. They mockingly referred to this creation-of-the-universe being promoted by scientists as some kind of “Big Bang”. What has become known as “The Big Bang Theory” closely aligns with the Biblical revelation that God spoke and the universe leapt into existence and that He then “stretched out the heavens”.

By faith we understand that the entire universe was formed at God’s command, that what we now see did not come from anything that can be seen.
Hebrews 11:3 (NLT)

The Bible Does Not Say How Old The Earth Is

The court case in the U.S. Supreme Court Case in late 2005 found that the science of the Young Earthers was not supported by the evidence. When they lost this case in which they were trying to get Young Earth Creationism taught alongside Darwinian Evolution they cried foul claiming that the Supreme Court was stacked with Secular Humanist judges who were committed to destroying Christianity. But it appears that the judges’ decision was not based on a bias to destroy Christianity but on the evidence presented to them. It must be remembered that Darwinian Evolution was not on trial during this case. According to Dr. Hugh Ross of Reasons To Believe, the transcripts of the court case reveal that the judges really tried to accommodate the Young Earth arguments into the classrooms of Philadelphia, but were not convinced by the scientific reasons to do so.


It is a gross misrepresentation of Scripture to declare that the Bible states the universe was created in 144 hours around 6,000 years ago. There are many fine Hebrew scholars who acknowledge that the days of Genesis chapter 1 could be “periods of unspecified time”. To make a young earth the touchstone of the Christian Gospel is theological vandalism! The point of Genesis 1 is not to date-set, but to establish that God created the universe, the earth, and in particular: man.

A much better question than when did God create? is Why did God create? The answer to this question is the answer to life itself.

You are created to worship


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Also related to this article: My 3 Biggest Paradigm Shifts

Are We On The Brink of Armageddon

Are We On The Brink of Armageddon

home  >  articles  > Are We On The Brink of Armageddon?

Armageddon? Some say it’s just about to happen. But what does the Bible say about it? 

Whenever things flare up in the Middle East, especially involving Israel, there are always people who speculate that Armageddon is about to happen. The word “Armageddon” has now become synonymous with “the final battle that ends the world”. So ubiquitous has the word become for the end of the world that Hollywood have titled blockbuster films with it, fictional books have been written about it, and media commentators now refer to it as the catch-all word to describe the level potential fall-out from a Middle Eastern battle. 

This is all very staggering considering that it occurs only once in Scripture, in the Book of Revelation, and is not alluded to anywhere else. Added to this is the clear and consistent message of Revelation to its original audience that this particular battle (which takes place in the middle section of the Book of Revelation—not the end!) was about to happen within their lifetime. 

Blessed is the one who reads aloud the words of this prophecy, and blessed are those who hear, and who keep what is written in it, for the time is near.
Revelation 1:3

And he said to me, “Do not seal up the words of the prophecy of this book, for the time is near.
Revelation 22:10

To argue that the expression “the time is near” actually means that the time is not for another two thousand years or so is ludicrous. Therefore, before anyone assumes that Armageddon is still yet to happen, we would be better advised to investigate whether it has already been fulfilled since this is what Revelation told its original audience would happen.

Some people regard the book of Revelation as repeating the same vision of the end of the world told in several different apacalyptic visions. But this is an assumption that when scrutinised is found to be faulty. The visions of Revelation actually unfold in a very sequential order. I encourage readers to revisit the Book of Revelation and notice that within it there is an urgency and imminency up until chapter 20 when it then introduces a much greater time-frame: a thousand years. Biblically, the expression 1,000 means large number, not meant to be counted. For example-

If one wished to contend with him,
one could not answer him once in a thousand times.
Job 9:3

For every beast of the forest is mine,
the cattle on a thousand hills.
Psalm 50:10 

For a day in your courts is better
than a thousand elsewhere.
I would rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God
than dwell in the tents of wickedness.
Psalm 84:10

But do not overlook this one fact, beloved, that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.
Second Peter 3:8  

Therefore the reference in Revelation 20 to a thousand years is meant to correlate to a “long time” and the references prior to that which plainly state that the events of Revelation 1-19 were “near”, “at hand”, “now” obviously includes the one reference to Armageddon (Revelation 16:14). 



The case for all of Revelation 1 – 19 being fulfilled is made in my ebook on the Book of Revelation. An examination of first century shows that the events described in Revelation 16 were described by contemporary historians of the era, including Josephus. He describes the Roman catapaults of a “talent weight” (100 pounds or 25 kilos) which rained down on the seiged city of Jerusalem during the 1260 day (42 month) seige against the Romans. 

Josephus also makes references to the skirmishes and battles that took place during this time, which the expression “Armageddon” refers to. Far from this being an apocalyptic battle to end the world (something not stated in the Book of Revelation), it predicted events which we about to take place within months of its authorship.


In my eBook, The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible (about the Book of Revelation) I make the case that most modern readers are unfamiliar with the events of the first century and how they fit into the Biblical message.  It’s worth noting that Christ also gave some clear time-frame references as to when His prophecies would be fulfilled- which fit with my prior statements about Revelation 1-19 being fulfilled.


When they persecute you in one town, flee to the next, for truly, I say to you, you will not have gone through all the towns of Israel before the Son of Man comes.
Matthew 10:23

Truly, I say to you, there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom.”
Matthew 16:28 

Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place.
Matthew 24:34

In one of my other ebooks – The Most Embarrassing Verse In The Bible, I make the case for all of Matthew 24 being fulfilled- especially since this is what Christ plainly said would happen in Matthew 24:34. Matthew 24 corresponds to Revelation 1-19, while Matthew 25 corresponds to Revelation 20-22. I discuss this in my ebook on Matthew 24.  This and other issues are discussed in my eBooks, The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible (about the Book of Revelation), and The Most Embarrassing Verse In The Bible (about the Olivet Discourse of Matthew 24) . Readers will profit in their understanding of these matters by reading both of these eBooks. 

Dr. Andrew Corbett

Start With Christianity

Start With Christianity

home > articles > When Looking For A Religion, Start With Christianity


For those unacquainted with religions, it is often thought by them that all religions are basically the same. After all, every religion offers peace of mind, moral teaching, a connection with the divine, and a means for prayer, ritual, and worship, leading to meaning, fulfilment, and happiness.

To the unacquainted, religion sounds like one of life’s optional extras. It is particularly suited to those who are not scientific, easily intellectually satisfied with mystical answers, and probably already familiar with religion due to their upbringing.

But if you are in the market, so to speak, for a religion, there are several to choose from. Perhaps the greatest piece of advice about where to start comes from Dr. Craig Hazen. He gives 5 reasons for his advice which are worth considering.

If considering which religion is right, and therefore right for you, Dr. Hazen strongly suggests commencing with the claims of Christianity because –

  1. You should start with Christianity because its claims are testable. (And Christianity invites investigation into its claims.)

  2. Among all the religions of the world and their demands, only Christianity is free. It is based on the grace of God.

  3. Christianity is the only worldview which actually matches reality. For example, what is reality according to Eastern mysticism? It says that the world is an illusion. But Christianity says that it is actually what it is.

  4. In Christianity you get to live a non-compartmentalised life – that is, a wholistic life, not a bifurcated life.

  5. Christianity has all of Jesus at the centre – whereas, every other religion has just ‘a piece of Jesus’. 



One of the other advantages of starting with Christianity in a religious investigation is that you can commence privately. All you have to do to commence is pray – talk to God. Ask Him to show you the truth. Ask Him to guide you. Your private investigation can continue by reading about the Founder of Christianity for yourself by reading the third book of the New Testament (the founding documents of Christianity), called, The Gospel of Luke. By combining both prayer and Bible reading in your investigation you can independently come to your own conclusions. I’d love to hear how your journey goes.

-Andrew Corbett 



home > articles > Does Bible Prophecy Matter Anymore? How We Understand Bible Prophecy


Does Bible Prophecy matter anymore? With so many Bible Prophecy teachers making so many wild interpretations of what the Bible supposedly teaches will happen in our near future, who have time and time again been proven wrong, the believer could be forgiven for simply abandoning the Bible as being prophetically credible. But being convinced in the inerrancy of Scripture and aware that much of what is taught in Dispensational churches inadvertantly attempts to undermine the inerrancy of Scripture by its false prophetic interpretations, I set about to study the subject of Bible Prophecy and learn for myself what the Bible really says and predicts.

I’m a Conservative Pentecostal Classical Idealistic Preterist, although I’d prefer the label- Christian. I welcome the scrutiny of my views and expect the need to defend them. I therefore expect to be able to do the same with others and their views. Central to my view is the unique authority of Scripture which reveals that Christ is Cause, Reason, and Purpose of life. From this fount my understanding of Bible Prophecy flows. Most Bible prophecy is fufilled therefore in Jesus Christ. His coming as Messiah and Saviour was the core of Old Testament prophetic hope. But one very popular and vocal Bible Prophecy teacher, John Hagee, has now declared that Jesus did NOT come as Messiah. He now promotes a concept that God has two means of salvation: one by faith in Christ, the other by being born a Jew. He asserts that Jesus Christ did not claim to be the Messiah and therefore the Jews did not reject Him as their Messiah. Even the novice Bible reader should detect how wrong this is. Hear for yourself-

John Hagee is promoting the logical extension of “Dispensational” Eschatology. His method of interpreting the Bible can be tested from both history and Scripture. Upon examination of his teachings it will be shown that he is wrong, wrong, wrong!

It’s time for Christians to re-examine what teachers like Hagee have taught regarding Bible Prophecy.

88 Reasons for the RAPTURE in 1988Dispensationalism has reached its peak with the Left Behind phenomenon. Its new champions include Tim LaHaye, John Hagee, Kenneth Copeland, Jack Van Impe. Almost without exception, all of the predictions these teachers have made (based on their Dispensational interpretation of Bible prophecy) have not only not come true, at times the degree to which they have been wrong has been dangerously alarming. Who could forget the avalanche of supposed Bible Prophecies these teachers promoted that predicted the total collapse of the world banking and airline systems with the Y2K bug?! I have detailed some more of these faulty predictions in another article. But the exposure of this faulty method of interpreting the Bible and Bible prophecy has not only embarrassed Dispensationalism, it has hastened its inevitable demise!

The kings of Revelation 17Many Christians have been quick to realise the inadequacies of Dispensationalism but have not known what to replace it with. This vacuum has increasingly been filled by Preterism (from the Latin word ‘praeter’ which means the past). There are two types of Preterism. The first is Full Preterism(also known as ‘Hyper’ Preterism or Pantelogy) which regards all Bible prophecy is fulfilled. The other is Partial Preterism (also known as ‘Classical’ Preterism) which regards most Bible prophecy fulfilled – except the return of Christ, the Resurrection, Final Judgment, and the New Heaven and Earth. Partial Preterism agrees with ancient Creeds of the Church while Dispensationalism and Full Preterism do not. The difference between Full Preterism and Classical Preterism is explored in more detail [here]. Some very respected Bible teachers have adopted the Partial Preterist position. These include: Dr. R.C. Sproul, Steve Griegg, and Hank Hanegraaff. One of the best cases for the Partial Preterist position is the eBook- The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible which can be immediately downloaded to your computer and read off your screen or printed out.

The implications of how we understand Bible Prophecy goes much further than merely guessing about the future. It actually goes to the heart of how we interpret the Bible and therefore whether the Bible is truly God’s Word. This then leads to how we understand God, salvation, and church. If we can get the correct method for interpretting the Bible and its prophecies we can learn to declare the Good News with confidence knowing that God’s Word is thoroughly reliable because it has a proven prophetic track record. Correctly understanding Bible Prophecy will help us to marvel at God and His Ways and help us to communicate the Good News with awe and passion.

Dr. Andrew Corbett, Legana, Tasmania, December 2007

This, and other such issues, is dealt with more fully in my downloadable ebook on the Book of Revelation- The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible.

Download Dr Corbett’s eBook The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible.

About The Book of Revelation

About The Book of Revelation

home > articles > About The Nature of The Book of Revelation

Much damage to the credibility of the Bible has nearly been done by those who twist the contents of the Book of Revelation to force it to sound like it refers to the events of our present day. Time and time again, so called Bible-Prophecy teachers have been left with egg on their faces as their ridiculous speculations have proved to be completely wrong. Our Administrator forwarded onto me a copy of an email we were sent claiming that our understanding of the Book of Revelation was wrong and that we would be humiliated by the Lord when the Rapture took place on October 17th 2009.

You’ll notice that I am writing this brief article after this ‘day of humiliation’. But still the sillyness continues to be rolled out by many TBN preachers who (even inadvertently) misrepresent the Book of Revelation by claiming that it is written to us about our day. (I have compiled a small list of such of failed interpretations.) In the unlikely event that you are a now cynical believer reading this article, or even in the more unlikely event that you are a complete skeptic about Christianity and the Bible reading this article, I hope to take just a few minutes of your time to offer an alternate understanding of the Book of Revelation that will actually present a credible case for Christianity and the Bible.

Understanding the Book of RevelationWHO WAS REVELATION FOR?

Firstly, it can be shown that the Book of Revelation was written to a Turkish audience around 65AD who had the immediate potential of actually understanding it! The contents of the Book bore immediate relevance to them and their situation.

The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things that must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John,
Revelation 1:1

History verifies this claim (that the contents of the Book of Revelation were written to an audience around 65AD who most likely recognised its message and meaning). This is because the first 19 chapters deal with the impending judgment upon Jerusalem and the end of the Temple Age. The Jewish historian, Josephus, records the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple which took place in 70AD.



Why the Rapture Has RupturedSecondly, nearly all Bible prophecy teachers make certain assumptions about the Book of Revelation which can be shown to be either inaccurate or even false. For example, most of these Bible Prophecy “Experts” claim that the Book of Revelation describes the Rapture of the Church. The problem with this assumption is that it is false. The term: Rapture, no where occurs in the Book of Revelation! Neither is it described or even alluded to in the Book of Revelation. For example, it is claimed that the following verse predicts the Rapture. You decide-

After this I looked, and behold, a door standing open in heaven! And the first voice, which I had heard speaking to me like a trumpet, said, “Come up here, and I will show you what must take place after this.” At once I was in the Spirit, and behold, a throne stood in heaven, with one seated on the throne.
Revelation 4:1-2



The AntichristAnother huge assumption made by many Bible Prophecy “Experts” is that the Antichrist is described and foretold in the Book of Revelation. The problem with this assumption is that term “Anti-Christ” does not even occur in the Book of Revelation! Revelation 13 describes 2 beasts which these ‘experts’ often fail to distinguish and then erroneously label: The Anti-Christ. The Book of Revelation does refer to “the Beast and the false prophet”, and it would be my assertion that it is the ‘false prophet’ and ‘beast from the earth’ who are more likely the person referred to as The Antichrist in John’s epistles (and was most likely the Office of the High Priest). Notice that John states that the Antichrist was “now is” (1Jn 4:3) and was “coming” (‘to be revealed’) –

Children, it is the last hour, and as you have heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come. Therefore we know that it is the last hour.
First John 2:18

and every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God. This is the spirit of the antichrist, which you heard was coming and now is in the world already.
First John 4:3



New Heavens and EarthBut perhaps the Mother of Assumptions that these “Bible Prophecy Experts” make is their claim that the Book of Revelation is all about the end of the world. The New Testament’s usage of such terms as “last days” (Acts 2:17; 2Tim 3:1; Heb. 1:2; James 5:3; 2Peter 3:3) or “end of the age/s” (Matt. 24:14; 1Cor. 10:11; Heb. 9:26) does not refer to the end of the world, but the end of the Temple-Age. While the Book of Revelation does indeed give a glimpse of the ultimate fulfilment of God’s plan of redemption in which paints a picture of a “New Heaven and Earth” where the futility of this present world (pain, suffering, sickness, death, sorrow) will be done away with, its message is about living in the present world in the reassuring knowledge that Christ is Lord of Lords and the King of Kings (Rev. 17:14).

He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning nor crying nor pain anymore, for the former things have passed away.”

¶ And he who was seated on the throne said, “Behold, I am making all things new.” Also he said, “Write this down, for these words are trustworthy and true.”
Revelation 21:4-5



Climate Change And Biblical End TimesAs I write, we are on the verge of the Copenhagen Conference which will bring world leaders together to discuss Climate Change/Global Warming and Carbon Emission Trading Schemes. I have received many emails from people warning me that this is the beginning of Revelation 13 about to be fulfilled. This is the particular chapter of the Book of Revelation, they claim, which talks about the coming of an evil one-world government. But I simply invite you to read Revelation 13. Where does it mention a One-World Government in Revelation 13? There is no hint of such a thing in this chapter. The further suggestion is made from Revelation 17, where it talks about a seeming coalition of “ten kings”, that this passage also talks about a looming One World Government –

And the ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have not yet received royal power, but they are to receive authority as kings for one hour, together with the beast. These are of one mind and hand over their power and authority to the beast.
Revelation 17:12-13

Copenhagen- The beginning of a one world governmentIn the early days of the European Union, many of these Bible Prophecy Experts pointed to the initial coalition of 10 European nations as the fulfilment of this alleged prediction of a One World Government. But then as the European Union grew to encompass much more than its initial 10 nations, these same Bible Prophecy Experts retreated into more nonsensical speculation. The bottom-line is that there is absolutely no mention, let alone a prediction, of a One World Government in the Book of Revelation!



In my eBook, THE MOST EMBARRASSING BOOK IN THE BIBLE, I present the case for the Book of Revelation being written to an audience around 65AD where its contents were immediately relevant. I am convinced that this is how the Book of Revelation is meant to be understood. That is, we should understand the Book of Revelation in the same way that we understand any other New Testament epistle. For example, when we read First Corinthians we know that it was written to an actual church in Corinth around 55AD. This epistle was written to them – not to us. But because of God’s canonical inspiration we know that First Corinthians was indeed written for us. When we realise that the Book of Revelation contained very-near-future predictions which would impact its original audience, and this can now be substantiated from the historical records, it actually increases our confidence in the reliability and credibility of God’s Word.

Consider that within the Book of Revelation it asserts that the original readers were living during the reign of “sixth king”. It then predicts that this current king was about to die a seemingly prematurely death and that other kings would follow in quick succession until “an” eighth king would be installed.

they are also seven kings, five of whom have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come, and when he does come he must remain only a little while. As for the beast that was and is not, it is an eighth but it belongs to the seven, and it goes to destruction.
Revelation 17:10-11

The 6th king of the Roman Empire was Caesar Nero. It was Nero who was reigning at the time of the writing of the Book of Revelation (see my article on Dating the Authorship of the Book of Revelation). After Nero’s death, Rome went into civil war. A quick succession of would-be emperors claimed the throne but none was able to consolidate the Empire until Caesar Vespasian, a military general, returned from Spain. Interestingly, Revelation 17 almost sounds confusing because it appears to be very inconsistent when it numbers just how many kings are involved. It says that there are “seven kings” which includes “an eighth”, but then goes on to state there is actually “ten kings”.

And the ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have not yet received royal power, but they are to receive authority as kings for one hour, together with the beast.
Revelation 17:12 

But upon a little examination, the apparent confusion over numbers because amazingly deliberate. After Nero died, he was succeeded by Galba who reigned for 6 months and a week until he was murdered by the Praetorian Guard. Unable to stabilise the Empire, he was succeeded by Otho who reigned just 3 months until he committed suicide after losing a battle to another Roman General, Vitellius. Caesar Vitellius reigned a mere 8 months until he was murdered by General Vespasian’s troops. Revelation 13 prophetically described this period as a time when the Beast from Across the Sea (the Office of the Roman Emperor) would receive “a mortal wound”.

One of its heads seemed to have a mortal wound, but its mortal wound was healed, and the whole earth marveled as they followed the beast.
Revelation 13:3

During this period of civil unrest in the Roman Empire, it probably did seem that the Empire was going to die. When Revelation 17 foretells of Caesar Vespasian arising to make the city (of Jerusalem) desolate by fire-

And the ten horns that you saw, they and the beast will hate the prostitute. They will make her desolate and naked, and devour her flesh and burn her up with fire,
Revelation 17:16

The Kings of RomeCaesar Vespasian is described as one of the “seven kings” in the sense that he completes mission for Rome in His purposes for Jerusalem (“seven” is used Biblically to speak of completion). But Vespasian is also described as “an eighth king” (note that he is not referred to as “the eighth king”). The number eight in Scripture speaks of “new” or “resurrection” (new life). Vespasian did indeed bring newness to the Roman Empire. In many ways he was able to “resurrect” it. So in this sense, Vespasian is both the seventhand also the eighth king referred to in Revelation 17. But in a literal sense, Vespasian was the tenth king since after Nero (the 6th) came Galba (7th), then Otho (8th), then Vitellius (9th), then Vespasian (10th). Thus, far from being muddled, Revelation’s predictions of its audience’s immediate future was amazingly accurate! (See my video interview with Dr Kenneth Gentry Jnr regarding this issue.)

Some have acknowledged what I and other Preterists are saying. But being unprepared to relinquish the idea that the Book of Revelation is written to us about our near future, they invent a new way of reading Scripture called Parallelism or Double Referencing. This is the idea that the Book of Revelation has two fulfilments: the first – during the lifetime of its original audience, and the second – to be fulfilled during the lifetime of the last generation (which they claim is ours). But there is no reason for twisting Scripture like this. We should keep to the principles of Bible interpretation that the Bible itself seems to provide which includes the idea that discovering the intended meaning of a passage should guide our interpretation of that passage.

as he does in all his letters when he speaks in them of these matters. There are some things in them that are hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other Scriptures.
Second Peter 3:16

Preterist Timeline

I have written a fuller explanation of the book of Revelation in my eBook- THE MOST EMBARRASSING BOOK IN THE BIBLE (click here to read a preview). The application from the Book of Revelation is that despite what appears to be an impotent Church struggling to serve an apparently impotent Christ, the Church is in reality made up of overcomers who lay down their lives gladly to promote Christ and His Gospel. In so doing, the Kingdom of Christ is extended, prayers are offered and heard, miracles are graced, and the believer can die with infinite hope that their Lord will keep them for eternity and clothe them with a new body which can not be subject to pain, injury, sorrow, or sin. With this knowledge we can endure momentary hardship during the brevity of this life on earth. We can be assured that our greatest delights and deepest moments of fulfilment are yet to come in the life to come.

“Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live.
John 5:25


Dr. Andrew Corbett, Legana, Tasmania, November 9th 2009

What’s The Deal With The Millennium?

What’s The Deal With The Millennium?

home  >  articles  >  What’s the deal with “the Millennium”?

Where is human history going? Many people believe that the Bible has not only accurately predicted human history to this point, but that it predicts a coming ‘Golden Age’. This possibly impending event is called: “The Millennium”. But there are very devout Bible readers who think this kind of reading of Scripture is actually a gross misreading of the Bible, and that what the Bible really says about the future may surprise – and even shock people today.

The “Millennium” is the touchstone for how people label themselves when it comes to interpretting Bible prophecy. Depending on how they regard the Millennium, they will classify themselves either as, (i) Premillennial; (ii) Amillennial; or, (iii) Post-Millennial. Within these Millennial categories there are people who take a “fundamentalist” view, generally known as “Dispensationalists” and there are others who take a “Reformed” view, generally known as “Historicists”, or the position I will argue for- “Preterist”.

The term “Millennium” doesn’t actually occur in the Scriptures. But like many things that the Bible teaches, we shouldn’t be hung up on terms because there are many Biblical truths which do not employ the terms we have identified them with. That is, there are things that the Bible teaches which it doesn’t say with the terms we have given them. For example, the Bible does not say that God loves you, but it does teach it. The expression, The Millennium, means 1,000 years. It is based on a reference in Revelation 20.

And he seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years, and threw him into the pit, and shut it and sealed it over him, so that he might not deceive the nations any longer, until the thousand years were ended. After that he must be released for a little while. ¶ Then I saw thrones, and seated on them were those to whom the authority to judge was committed. Also I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus and for the word of God, and who had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.
Revelation 20:2-4

Most commentators agree that this is a reference to “the Kingdom” which Christ repeatedly referred to. For those who think that this Kingdom will be an earthly, physical Kingdom, it is yet to come. This view is called Premillennialism. Most proponents of Premillennialism take the view that the Bible should be taken quite literally when it refers to Christ reigning “for a thousand years.” Premillennialists are critical of any other views regarding the reference to the one thousand year reign of Christ. Added to this, they state, there are Old Testament prophecies which speak of God ruling on earth in a Kingdom for a long time.

¶ In that day the root of Jesse, who shall stand as a signal for the peoples—of him shall the nations inquire, and his resting place shall be glorious.
Isaiah 11:10

This idea that Christ will return and establish a literal one thousand year reign from Jerusalem also incorporates the notion that God will re-establish Israel as a nation with reclamation of its Biblical boundaries in preparation for this impending earthly reign of Christ. Appeals are made to Old Testament prophecies which speak of the restoration of Israel to a glorious national state with Jewish people being drawn back to the Land of Israel to repopulate the Promised Land. This view has been by far the most popular view over the last century or so. It has been the seedbed of the rise of modern Zionism and for this reason has been very supportive of the State of Israel.



During the Reformation, the subject of the Millennium was made to fit into a different viewpoint. Many of the Reformers read their current events into the Book of Revelation and developed a system which became known as Historicism. This view considered that the prophecies of the Book of Revelation were written about the rise of the Roman Catholic Church, and that it predicted the rise of the Reformation and its eventual overthrow of the Papacy. The Reformers hope that they would indeed accomplish this goal was buoyed by their Historicist reading of the Book of Revelation. Out of this came a new way of looking at the Millennium. Most of the Reformers considered that the Biblical prophecies found in the Book of Revelation were yet to be fulfilled. But as the idea of a Rapture hadn’t been invented yet – and therefore a “two-stage” return of Christ was unheard of – these Reformers considered that the Millennium was a future event, and that the Book of Revelation depicts Christ returning just before the Great White Throne Judgment event. Therefore, Christ could only return after the Millennium. That’s why this view is called Post-Millennialism.

In this scheme, the Millennium would be a Golden Age for the Church where Christians would govern the earth through its various institutions and instrumentalities on behalf of Christ. Christ will only return after there has been a great harvest of the world’s souls and His Church has been made glorious in the earth. Because Christians will assume responsibility for the running of society, the laws of God will have to implemented at all levels of society (the Parliament, the Judiciary and the Head of State). This will require that Biblical justice will also need to be introduced including corporeal and capital punishment (the abolition of prisons as institutions of punishment would also be necessary).

Not all Historicists have adopted Post-Millennialism. Some Historicists hold to a form of Futurism. But for those Historicists who do subscribe to Post-Millennialism, they have an honest expectation that the Church is yet reach its Zenith on earth. Not all Post-Millennialists agree that the precise period for the Millennium will be a literal 1,000 years, but they do regard it as a definite and long period of time.



I’ve already alluded to Pre-Millennialism. This is a ‘Futurist’ concept of Bible Prophecy. It regards the Millennium as a literal 1,000 year period in which Christ will physically rule the earth from a restored, reclaimed, Jewish Jerusalem. Pre-Millennialists are almost invariably Dispensationalists of one kind or another. They consider that Christ will return in two stages: firstly, to “rapture” the New Covenant Church, and then secondly, to establish His earthly rule (either 3 1/2 or 7 years later). The primary idea behind Pre-Millennialism is that Christ must return to fulfil the promises made to Israel, and in particular, to King David. This idea demands that Scripture is read with God as currently having two Covenants and therefore two Covenant people-

Applying these principles of biblical interpretation, it must be seen that Israel (Abraham’s physical descendants) and the church (all New Testament believers) are two distinct groups. It is crucial to recognize that Israel and the church are distinct because, if this is misunderstood, Scripture will be misinterpreted. Especially prone to misinterpretation are passages that deal with promises made to Israel (both fulfilled and unfulfilled). Such promises should not be applied to the church. Remember, the context of the passage will determine to whom it is addressed and will point to the most correct interpretation.

Great emphasis is placed on the “Literal” reading of Scripture by Pre-Millennialists. But critics of Pre-Millennialism claim that this is based not on a literal reading of Scripture, but rather a wooden literal reading of Scripture. It did have a brief time in the sun around the third century under the name Chiliasm (pronounced “Killyasm”) but roundly condemned by church leaders and eventually a Church Council.

Chiliasm was, however, according to the interpretation of non-chilliasts, condemned as a heresy in the 4th century by the Church, which included the phrase whose Kingdom shall have no end in the Nicene Creed in order to rule out the idea of a Kingdom of God which would last for only 1000 literal years.[7] Despite some writers’ belief in millennialism, it was a decided minority view, as expressed in the nearly universal condemnation of the doctrine over a gradual period of time, beginning with Augustine of Hippo. It is vigorously disputed whether or not caesaropapism had a role in the virtual annihilation of millennialism from the 4th Century onwards.

Millennialism is strongly rejected as a heresy by the Orthodox Church. In AD 230, the Synod of Iconium declared that baptisms performed by the Montanist sect were invalid. The Ecumenical Council of Constantinople in AD 381 supported the Synod of Iconium and further declared millennialism to be a heresy.

But, this view has become by far the most popular view among Christians over the past 150 years thanks to the embracing of mass publishing and the use of media by Pre-Millennialist preachers. So ingrained in Evangelical (Bible-believing) Christian thinking that it could be easily argued that it has affected US Public Policy when Evangelicals have resided in the Whitehouse or Capitol Hill. It’s therefore not too difficult to imagine that the US Government’s attack on Iraq was justified by some as “putting down the rise of rebuilt Babylon” – based on a Pre-Millennial reading of the Book of Revelation.


What might this “Golden Age” look like to a Pre-Millennialist? Do people die in the Millennium? Do people marry in the Millennium? Since Pre-Millennialists teach that the Righteous are resurrected at the beginning of the Millennium, and therefore dwell on the earth during the Millennium with those who have not yet died and been resurrected, what happens to those resurrected saints who die in the Millennium? Pre-Millennialists speculate about how to resolve these questions. Vague references are cited from Isaiah about a child living to a hundred and still being considered a child. References to wolves and lambs both eating grass are taken to be a literal prophecy of global dietary transformation among animals previously considered predators. All of this conjecture about the Millennium by Pre-Millennialists is mere speculation and considered to be largely implausible by many theologians.

But Post-Millennial Historicism is guilty of the same speculative conjecturing. One common and obvious criticism of Pre-Millennialism is that today’s newspapers are read into the text of Revelation. In this practice, current events are forced into the imagery of Revelation’s apocalyptic language. For example, when 9/11 happened, some Pre-Millennialists saw this foretold in Revelation 18. New York, they speculated, was described as Babylon, the centre for commerce, which had become arrogant and apostate and thus would incur judgment.

And they threw dust on their heads as they wept and mourned, crying out,

“Alas, alas, for the great city
where all who had ships at sea grew rich by her wealth!
For in a single hour she has been laid waste.
Revelation 18:19

However, if you read the entire chapter of Revelation 18 it becomes apparent that what was foretold doesn’t fit the events of 9/11. This interpretation of the passage is being clumsily forced into the text and fails to be convincing.

Historicism can be indicted with the same charge as Futurist Pre-Millennialism. During the Reformation, many (if not all) of the Reformers interpreted the events of Revelation 18 as depicting the fall of the Roman Catholic Church and the Rise of the Protestant movement. This chapter of Church history is still read back into the message of Revelation which has given rise to the label, Historicism.

Some Historicists even see the rise and fall of Napoleon foretold in the pages of Revelation! It seems that the Reformers’ ideological and theological struggle with the Papacy, however veritable, coloured the way they interpreted the Book of Revelation. The predictions this Historicist model makes, based on its interpretation of the Book of Revelation, have largely failed. This is yet another thing that it shares in common with Futurist Pre-Millennialism!



Hyper-Preterists (as distinct from Classical-Preterists) regard the 1,000 years referred to Revelation 20 as being literal and commencing with King Solomon’s reign in 930BC. One ardent promoter of this view explained it to me this way-

The 1000 year ‘anomaly’ fits into a wider pattern of Old Testament usage –like the wider context of the solar system- that began in 930BC and was completed en toto in 70AD.

…A brief synopsis of the Davidic covenant and the 1000 year reign shows the logical and typo-logical parallels. …

1. The Davidic covenant factually entailed:
Solomon’s reign as King 1 Kgs 2
Solomon reigned 40 years in Jerusalem 1 Kgs 11:42
Solomon to sit on his throne in Jerusalem 1 Kgs 2
Solomon to rule over his people from Jerusalem 1 Kgs 2
Solomon built the Jerusalem temple 1 Kgs 7
JHWH dwell in the Jerusalem temple. 1 Kgs 8
Solomon lost his kingdom from disobedience. 1 Kgs 11:12-13

Jesus was a part of the Davidic covenant in Jerusalem temple which started c.930BC.
Jesus reigned as the Messiah – Davidic descendant- in the C.1st –

Statement Evidence
Jesus greater than Solomon Mt 12:42, Lk 11:31
Jesus reigned as King; ‘another Solomon.’ Acts 2; Eph 2:20ff, Mt27
Jesus reigned 40 years in Jerusalem 1 Cor 15:24-25;
Jesus to sit on his throne in Jerusalem 1 Cor 15:24-25
Jesus to rule over his people from Jerusalem Acts 2:33-35
Jesus superior to the Jerusalem temple “type” Heb 9:8-11
Jesus to destroy and build the temple. Mt 27:40, Acts 7:35-49
Jesus kept His kingdom from obedience. Rom 14:17, Col 4:11,Thess 2:12

Argument from facts –
Jesus began to reign from Acts 2 in AD 30 (+ or – 3)
Solomon reigned 40 years
Therefore Jesus reigned from 30-70AD = 40 years. (40 numerical symbol as period of trial. Ex).

Jesus began to reign from 30 AD as a descendant of the Davidic covenant
The Davidic covenant reigned from 930BC to its end in AD 70
Therefore Jesus typologically/covenantally reigned –
. as descendant for 1000 years from 930BC
. as David’s Father for 40 years to complete the 1000.

(1000 as numerical symbol for totality. Never literal but a symbol of totality or completion: eg. OT usage is symbolic. These cannot be literal.
. God owns ONLY 1000 hills? – Ps 50:10
. Happiness is ONLY 1000 days? – Ps 84:10
. Only 1000 flee at God’s rebuke? – Is 30:17

Also, further integration of a single typo-logial them that is logical, coherent, and

The Davidic covenant began with Solomon in 930BC to His descendant
Jesus was a descendant who ruled over the Jerusalem temple till 70AD
Therefore Jesus reigned:
i. In typology Jesus ruled thru Solomon for 1000 years
ii. In typology Solomon reigned thru Jesus till 70AD (1000)
iii. In prophecy Solomon predicted temples end1 Kgs 9:6-9
iv. In prophecy Jesus fulfilled it.Mt 24:1-3 cf. Rev 18-19.


There are several serious problems with this intricate attempt to make the data fit Revelation 20. Firstly, if the 1,000 year reign of Christ began with King Solomon, in what way was Satan bound then? Clearly he was not bound then. He was still active in tempting Christ, motivating the crucifixion of Christ and the persecution of the Church (especially refer to Christ’s own words in Luke 22:31), and was known to be active by the apostles who wrote to the churhces warning them to be guard against him (Eph. 6:12ff; 1Peter 5:1ff). Secondly, the references given citing Solomon are not at all convincing that they are meant to indicate the starting point for the 1,000 year reign of Christ. In fact, this kind of interpretation makes a mockery of the Doctrine of Perspicuity (the clarity of Scripture – the Bible does not contain mysterious / hidden / vague, messages). Thirdly, Revelation 20 indicates that the kingdom, or one thousand year reign of Christ, was just about to commence (not end). Revelation 20 says that this was to coincide with the binding of Satan. The New Testament teaches that Satan’s doomed was sealed by Christ’s Cross (Heb. 2:14; 1Jn. 3:8) and Christ also taught that the “kingdom was at hand”. The apostles wrote of the kingdom of God being a present reality (eg. 2Thess. 1:5) but it was yet to “appear” (2Tim. 4:1). The context of these passages fits well with the interpretation of Revelation 20 that the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in 70AD was the realising or “appearing” of Christ’s Kingdom and the binding of Satan because it is from this point that the only Covenant God offers mankind (the New Covenant) means that the redeemed are also “regenerated” (Titus 3:5) which Revelation describes as “the first resurrection”. Clearly, this did not commence with the reign of Solomon!


Regarding the Millennium as a yet future event creates unnecessary and avoidable difficulties. Certain events which Scripture seems to make clear are singular events have to be artificially made to double up. For example, the return of Christ. The Pre-Millennialist has at least two returns of Christ and possibly three: (i) A Pre-Tribulation Rapture Return of Christ; (ii) A Post-Tribulation Return of Christ and (iii) a return of Christ to rescue the ‘Camp of the Saints’ and vanquish His enemies in order to set up the Great White Throne Judgment. Added to this is a double-up of the Physical Resurrection: (i) For those who had previously died prior to the Millennium who will be resurrected at the start of the Millennium; and (ii) For everyone else, at the end of the Millennium. We could go on and mention that many Pre-Millennialists believe that the Bible predicts that the Jerusalem Temple will be rebuilt just prior to the commencement of the Millennium, then destroyed just prior to the commencement of the Millennium, then rebuilt for the Millennium!

Hopefully it becomes apparent that what we are really dealing with is not just “Eschatology” (what the Bible predicts about the end) but we are actually engaged in a discussion about how we understand the Bible itself! If we tolerate such wild speculating when it comes to interpretting the Bible’s prophecies we are prone to error. By using the same sound principles that we would use for any other Biblical passage-

(i) Read a passage in its entirety and appreciate its full context (textual-type, geopolitical backdrop, occasion for it being written);

(ii) Use Scripture to Interpret Scripture (appreciate not just the words of Scripture but the language and manner of speaking of Scripture);

(iii) Discover the understanding of the original audience (appreciate that the Bible was not written to us, but for us); and

(iv) do not interpret a text in a way that contradicts the overall message of Scripture,

-then we will go a long way further down the road of correctly interpreting the Book of Revelation and other prophecies in Scripture.

By doing this we would soon discover that the Bible’s usage of the term “one thousand” frequently and consistently means “too big to count”, or not meant to be counted. For example, God owns the cattle on a thousand hills. God’s love and faithfulness lasts for a thousandgenerations. One day in your court is better than a thousand elsewhere.

One wonders who owns that cow on the thousand and first hill, or who the poor soul is who was born in the one thousand and first generation, or whether dwelling in the house of a pagan for a thousand and one days might just be better than one day in God’s house?

In this light we ask, When the Bible says that Christ shall reign for a thousand years, is it saying that His reign will one day end?

and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.”
Luke 1:33

When did Christ tell His disciples that His Kingdom, established at the Cross, would be inaugurated? It seems that He gave them pretty clear statements that His Kingdom, what the Book of Revelation describes as “a thousand years” would commence within their lifetimes.

Truly, I say to you, there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom.”
Matthew 16:28

Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place.
Matthew 24:34

In predicting the fall and destruction of Jerusalem (described in Revelation as “Babylon”, “Egypt”, “Sodom”, “the city where they crucified the Lord”)-

and their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city that symbolically is called Sodom and Egypt, where their Lord was crucified.
Revelation 11:8

  • Christ is clearly telling His disciples that He would “come” (note, not “return”) in judgment to close the Old Covenant and commence His Kingdom- one covenant between God and Man, forming one people, under one Saviour and King. In this “Preterist” scheme, the ‘Millennium’ commenced when the Old Covenant’s elements (the Temple, the Priesthood, the Sacrifices) was brought to an end in AD70. People enter into this Kingdom spiritually.

nor will they say, “See here!’ or ‘See there!’ For indeed, the kingdom of God is within you.”
Luke 17:21

Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would have been fighting, that I might not be delivered over to the Jews. But my kingdom is not from the world.”
John 18:36

In this sense, the first resurrection is salvation. Paul wrote to the Ephesians that they were dead in trespasses and sins but have now been made alive through Christ (Ephesians 2:1-5). Without Christ, a person is spiritually dead. In Revelation 20 it states that for those who have partaken of the first resurrection the second death will not touch them-

Blessed and holy is the one who shares in the first resurrection! Over such the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and they will reign with him for a thousand years.
Revelation 20:6

In coming to Christ a person enters into the Kingdom of Christ (the “Millennium”) and begins to exercise Christ’s influence in the earth today. The offer of salvation will one day come to an end. As this happens, the forces of anti-Christ(ian) influences muster to wage spiritual war against the Church (“the camp of the saints”) and it is at this point that Christ will return like flaming fire from heaven-

And they marched up over the broad plain of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city, but fire came down from heaven and consumed them,
Revelation 20:9

Proceeding the return of Christ will be the final judgment, “the Great White Throne”, where all will be physically resurrected and judged.

11Then I saw a great white throne and him who was seated on it. From his presence earth and sky fled away, and no place was found for them. 12 And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Then another book was opened, which is the book of life. And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to what they had done. 13 And the sea gave up the dead who were in it, Death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them, and they were judged, each one of them, according to what they had done. 14 Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. 15 And if anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire.
Revelation 20:11-15

This interpretation is the most Biblically consistent. It is also the most conservative as it avoids speculating, appeals to verifiable historical events (such as the fall and destruction of Jerusalem), and fosters a realistic worldview for how Christians should engage with culture today. If this view is wrong, nothing is lost. If Post-Millennialism is wrong much ground is lost by waiting for Christ to promote His Church to a position of worldly power. If Pre-Millennialism is wrong, vast ground is lost by discrediting Christ, the Scriptures and Christians’ generally. There is one other major treatment of the Millennium promoted by Hyper-Preterists who regard the Millennium as the time between the Cross and the Destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in AD70. But this view is discredited for so many other reasons all of which become apparent when we read Scripture with the four sound principles of Biblical interpretation.

Do not marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice
John 5:28

“For this is the will of my Father, that everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him should have eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day.”
John 6:40

– – –

I have written a fuller explanation of the book of Revelation in my eBook- THE MOST EMBARRASSING BOOK IN THE BIBLE (click here to read a preview). The application from the Book of Revelation is that despite what appears to be an impotent Church struggling to serve an apparently impotent Christ, the Church is in reality made up of overcomers who lay down their lives gladly to promote Christ and His Gospel. In so doing, the Kingdom of Christ is extended, prayers are offered and heard, miracles are graced, and the believer can die with infinite hope that their Lord will keep them for eternity and clothe them with a new body which can not be subject to pain, injury, sorrow, or sin. With this knowledge we can endure momentary hardship during the brevity of this life on earth. We can be assured that our greatest delights and deepest moments of fulfilment are yet to come in the life to come.

Dr. Andrew Corbett, Legana, Tasmania, Australia August 26th 2010

The Tide Is Turning When It Comes To How We Understand Bible Prophecy

The Tide Is Turning When It Comes To How We Understand Bible Prophecy

home  > articles  > The Tide Is Changing When It Comes To How We Understand Bible Prophecy…

I was enjoying a meal with a pastor during a recent interstate ministry trip when he then asked me about my understanding of Bible Prophecy.

I see from your website that you’ve written quite a bit about it” he said.

“Yes I have” I replied, “but what’s your position first?”

To which he responded, “I take the traditional orthodox position.

“Do you mean the oldest position, or the one that’s 170 years old?” I asked.

I remember as a young boy going to church on a Sunday evening and hearing the Bible Prophecy teacher give his end-times-chart-on-the-bedsheet-on-the-wall talk and feeling both excited and scared.”Excited” because it was reassuring to hear how accurate the Bible was in matching prophecy with history. “Scared” because the Bible apparently said that the ‘last days’ were going to be hell-on-earth! I was taught that the USSR was the bear of Ezekiel and also described as Gog and Magog. I was told that the Anti-christ was alive today in America and already plotting his world take-over. I heard that a time of Great Tribulation was coming on the earth to punish Israel for rejecting their Messiah and forming an alliance with the Anti-christ who will eventually rebuild Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem. This would all lead to the battle of Armaggeddon where millions of people would be killed in the mother of all battles. But most evangelistically I was told that I could escape this coming doom by committing my life ot Christ and therefore qualify for being “raptured” just before this final seven year period began.

Like my interstate pastor friend, I just thought this was the traditional, orthodox doctrine. I mostly ignored the inconsistencies this understanding presented. I just let the questions mount. Then one day when I was still young, I heard another pastor teaching about end times who seemed to suggest that not only wasn’t this the traditional way of understanding Bible Prophecy, it was also not orthodox! That is, he said that the Bible couldn’t teach this. He called it “Dispensationalism”. Back then, Hal Lindsay was the paperback champion of Dispensationalism while Dr John F. Walvoord (of Dallas Theological Seminary) was the hardback champion. In my boyhood church no-one questioned these Bible authorities. Dozens of Bible Prophecy teachers were spawned by these authors. Each one reiterated the Dispensational interpretation of the Bible and too few of us realised that we weren’t just being told how to interpret Bible prophecy…

That was all some thirty years ago. Since that time Dispensationalism has reached its peak with the Left Behind phenomenon. Its new champions include Tim LaHaye, John Hagee, Kenneth Copeland, Jack Van Impe. Almost without exception, all of the predictions these teachers have made (based on their Dispensational interpretation of Bible prophecy) have not only not come true, at times the degree to which they have been wrong has been dangerously alarming. Who could forget the avalanche of supposed Bible Prophecies these teachers promoted that predicted the total collapse of the world banking and airline systems with the Y2K bug?! I have detailed some more of these faulty predictions in another article. But the exposure of this faulty method of interpreting the Bible and Bible prophecy has not only embarrassed Dispensationalism, it has hastened its inevitable demise!

Many Christians have been quick to realise the inadequacies of Dispensationalism but have not known what to replace it with. This vacuum has increasingly been filled by Preterism (from the Latin word ‘praeter’ which means the past). There are two types of Preterism. The first is Full Preterism (also known as ‘Hyper’ Preterism or Pantelogy) which regards all Bible prophecy is fulfilled. The other is Partial Preterism (also known as ‘Classical’ Preterism) which regards most Bible prophecy fulfilled – except the return of Christ, the Resurrection, Final Judgment, and the New Heaven and Earth. Partial Preterism agrees with ancient Creeds of the Church while Dispensationalism and Full Preterism do not. The difference between Full Preterism and Classical Preterism is explored in more detail [here]. Some very respected Bible teachers have adopted the Partial Preterist position. These include: Dr. R.C. Sproul, Steve Griegg, and Hank Hanegraaff. One of the best cases for the Partial Preterist position is the eBook- The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible which can be immediately downloaded to your computer and read off your screen or printed out.

The implications of how we understand Bible Prophecy goes much further than merely guessing about the future. It actually goes to the heart of how we interpret the Bible and therefore whether the Bible is truly God’s Word. This then leads to how we understand God, salvation, and church. If we can get the correct method for interpretting the Bible and its prophecies we can learn to declare the Good News with confidence knowing that God’s Word is thoroughly reliable because it has a proven prophetic track record. Correctly understanding Bible Prophecy will help us to marvel at God and His Ways and help us to communicate the Good News with awe and passion.

Dr. Andrew Corbett, Legana, Tasmania, August 2007


The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible, eBook, by Dr. Andrew Corbett

The Most Embarrassing Book In The Bible, eBook, by Dr. Andrew Corbett

I have written a fuller explanation of the book of Revelation in my eBook- THE MOST EMBARRASSING BOOK IN THE BIBLE (click here to read a preview). The application from the Book of Revelation is that despite what appears to be an impotent Church struggling to serve an apparently impotent Christ, the Church is in reality made up of overcomers who lay down their lives gladly to promote Christ and His Gospel. In so doing, the Kingdom of Christ is extended, prayers are offered and heard, miracles are graced, and the believer can die with infinite hope that their Lord will keep them for eternity and clothe them with a new body which can not be subject to pain, injury, sorrow, or sin. With this knowledge we can endure momentary hardship during the brevity of this life on earth. We can be assured that our greatest delights and deepest moments of fulfilment are yet to come in the life to come.

John 5:25“Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live.


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Finally, How To Understand The New Testament

Finally, How To Understand The New Testament

home > articles > How To Understand The New Testament 

June 11th 2018


Professors Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart state that the entire framework of the New Testament is eschatological (How To Read The Bible For All Its Worth, 2003:145). “Eschatology”, they write, “has to do with the end, when God brings this age to its close.” Hence my double entendre heading – Understanding what the Bible teaches about “finally” (Eschatology) is necessary in order to understand what the New Testament teaches.   

“Most Jews in Jesus’ day were eschatological in the their thinking. That is, they thought they lived at the very brink of time, when God would step into history and bring an end to this age and usher in the age to come. The Greek word for the end they were looking for is eschaton“, they write. To this, most scholars would give a hearty ‘Amen!’ This explains why even Christ’s disciples asked the resurrected Christ, “Will You at this time restore the Kingdom to Israel?” (Acts 1:6) And Christ’s response to their question is very telling: “He said to them, ‘It is not for you to know times or seasons that the Father has fixed by his own authority.'”  In other words, Your expectations of what the Messiah was to do, are wrong. The Father has a plan and He has determined when it will be fulfilled. Bear this in mind when you’re reading through the New Testament. Note the eschatological expressions in the New Testament such as “last days” (Acts 2:17; 2Tim. 3:1; Heb. 1:2), “end of the age/s” (Matt. 13:49; 1Cor. 10:11; Heb. 9:26), refer not to the Jewish expectation of the Messiah bringing about the end of the Roman Occupation, but to the end of the Old Covenant because the Messiah had established a New Covenant at Calvary. This is why Hebrews 8:13 declares that the Old Covenant had been ‘made obsolete’ and was ‘about to be done away with’ – that is, the end of the Old Covenant was about to be completed.

Diagram taken from the book, The Most Embarrassing Verse In The Bible

Diagram taken from the book, The Most Embarrassing Verse In The Bible

Because the study of Eschatology is about final things, it presumes that there is divine plan. Like any good story, this divine plan isn’t merely how a chapter ends, but how the story itself ends. Thus, eschatology is the study of God’s unfolding plan which is formatted by a Part 1 (the Old Covenant) and Part 2 (the New Covenant). Most of the eschatological language of the New Testament actually refers to the end of the Old Covenant (the drawing to a close of ‘Part 2’).

As you have a look through the articles on this site, I hope you’ll come to understand what the New Testament means by such eschatological expressions. [Begin]

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Determining The Date Revelation’s Authorship

Determining The Date Revelation’s Authorship

home  >  articles  >  Dating the authorship of the Book of Revelation


Tearing up Revelation in frustration

It would be remiss of any serious student of Revelation not to at least do a cursory examination of the historical context to which Revelation is back-dropped. The first point of reference would have to be to determine when Revelation was written. Most scholars regard there being only two possible dates. Dr. Leon Morris explores this adequately in his Tyndale Commentary series volume on Revelation, and I recommend that this widely available commentary be read. In the case of most books of the Bible, determining the date of its authorship, while certainly important, is not necessarily crucial to its interpretation. But this is absolutely not the case with the Book of Revelation. Some tradition has up until recent times regarded the date Revelation’s authorship to be around 95AD. This has been based almost entirely on a misunderstanding of one vague statement by the second century Church Father, Irenaeus.

But the doctoral work by Kenneth L. Gentry on dating Revelation has concluded that it must have been written in the “mid to late 60s” rather than in 95AD-

There are suggestive evidences within the book to date it in the mid – to late 60s of the first century. In fact, the evidence is persuasive enough that it convinced such notable scholars Moses Stuart, F. J. A. Hort, B. F. Westcott, and F. W. Farrar in the 19th century, and J. A. T. Robinson, R. A. Torrey, Albert A. Bell, C. F. D. Moule, and R.C. Sproul, in the 20th century.

Two leading indicators of the early date are: (1) The “temple” in the “holy city” is still standing as John writes, though it is being threatened with devastation (Rev. 11: 1-2). We know as a matter of historical fact that the Jewish temple was destroyed in A.D. 70, and has never been rebuilt. (2) The sixth “king” is presently ruling from the “seven mountains” and will do so until a king comes who will reign a “short time” (Rev. 17:9-10). The Preterist takes this to be a clear enough allusion to Nero Caesar. According to the enumeration found in Josephus’ Antiquities (18:2:2,6, 10) and Suetonius’ Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Nero is Rome’s sixth King, following Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius, and Claudius. The next reigning emperor, Galba, reigned just six months, the shortest reigning emperor until that time.

Sourced from-
by Dr. Kenneth Gentry Jr.

Full-Preterist, Don Preston, makes a similar point-

What is it Iranaeus [supposedly] said about the date of Revelation? Actually, Iranaeus did not discuss the dating of the book at all. The relevant quote is about the identity of the beast of Revelation and is found in the work of Eusebius, 4th century church historian, Book 5, chapter 8. Eusebius says Iranaeus speaks about John :”We, therefore, do not venture to affirm anything with certainty respecting the name of antichrist. For were it necessary that his name should be clearly announced to the present age, it would have been declared by him who saw the revelation. For it has not been long since it was seen, but almost in our own generation, about the end of Domitian’s reign.”
Don K. Preston

The evidence for Revelation actually being written before 70AD includes-

  • A quote from Clement of Alexandria (150-220 AD) who plainly states that it was Nero who banished John to Patmos, not Emperor Domitian

And to give you confidence, when you have thus truly repented, that there remains for you a trustworthy hope of salvation, hear a story that is no mere story, but a true account of John the apostle that has been handed down and preserved in memory. When after the death of the tyrant (previously identified as Nero) he removed from the island of Patmos to Ephesus, he used to journey by request to the neighboring districts of the Gentiles, in some places to appoint bishops, in others to regulate whole churches, in others to set among the clergy some one man, it may be, of those indicated by the Spirit.
(“Who is the Rich Man that shall be Saved?”, Section 42)

  • Cerinthus was a first century AD author who wrote The Pseudo-Apocalypse. He died well before John, that is well before 95AD, but his Pseudo-Apocalypse contains many references to John’s Apocalypse (the Book of Revelation).

  • The internal evidence supports a pre-64AD authorship. This includes-
    1. Rev. 11- John is told to measure the Temple (which was destroyed in 70AD)
    2. Rev. 17- There are “seven kings, five have fallen, one now is.” Nero was the 6th Roman King. He reigned until 68AD.

The expressions of nearness of the Lord’s coming within Revelation indicate that something was about to immediately happen. The notion that “imminent” doesn’t mean soon but rather anytime- and then quickly is somewhat ridiculous and a discredit to the several lexicons which have succumbed to this faulty reasoning. If Revelation was written in 95AD, what event happened within months or few years of its publication that could be seen as fulfilling the great sense of imminence contained within its pages? None. But if Revelation was written around 64AD the question is easily answered by pointing to the great persecution which commenced in 64AD and the campaign against Jerusalem which began in 68AD.

It is therefore my contention that Revelation 1-19 concerns events which were all fulfilled by 70AD when Jerusalem was destroyed. There are good reasons to believe that these passages parallel Matthew 24. Revelation 20 then introduces a greater time period- “1,000” years, which simply means a long period of time. This parallels Matthew 25 where we find several long-time references (the Bridegroom was “delayed”, vs. 5; the Master went away “a long time”, vs 19). At the end of Revelation 20 a fire appears from heaven which delivers the godly. This is the physical return of Christ, which is also described in Second Thessalonians 1:7-8 as being “fire from heaven”.

Therefore, the entire concept promoted by the Left Behind series is built upon a ridiculous method of Biblical interpretation which places nearly all of the contents of Revelation into the yet-to-be-fulfilled category.

The implications of course for rightly determining the date of Revelation’s authorship and which method of Biblical interpretation we employ are related. If Revelation was written in 95AD, then I am wrong. If Revelation was written around 65AD then I am more likely correct. If I am right then we need to overhaul how we regard the future and our involvement in it.



It was a dark time for the Church. Since the death of Stephen in Acts 7, the Jewish Temple authorities had been waging a violent war against the Church. This continued up until the time of Jerusalem’s destruction in 70AD. Empire sanctioned persecution against the Church was being intensified since 64AD when Nero had ordered Christians to be put to death (usually by beheading). He declared that everyone in the Empire must acknowledge that he was Lord and King. Christians were publicly humiliated, ostracized and martyred throughout the Empire by both Jews and the Romans as they refused to declare that Caesar was either their Lord or their King (titles they exclusively reserved for Christ) or that the Old Covenant had any hold on them. Added to this was the rise in false doctrine, an increase in spiritual routine and therefore a decline in authentic passionate love for Jesus.

The Lord reveals through John that the wave of persecution against the Church was driven by the Dragon, no longer would his initial readers be lulled into thinking that they were engaged in some mere politico-ideological war – but a life-and-death spiritual war.

Andrew Corbett, 7th February 2005

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